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Table 1 Baseline demographics and characteristics of the CKD population by cohort and post-initiation MRA treatment duration

From: Patient characteristics and initiation of mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists in patients with chronic kidney disease in routine clinical practice in the US: a retrospective cohort study

  CKD cohort DKD CKD + HF DKD + HF
No MRA Spiro <  6 months Spiro ≥ 6 months No MRA Spiro <  6 months Spiro ≥ 6 months No MRA Spiro <  6 months Spiro ≥ 6 months No MRA Spiro <  6 months Spiro ≥ 6 months
n = 112,730 n = 869 n = 481 n = 75,616 N = 891 N = 469 N = 14,653 N = 512 N = 373 N = 21,144 N = 808 N = 458
Age, years
 Mean (SD) 58.4 56.8 57.2 61.5 59.4 58.8 66.7 62.0 62.6 65.5 63.5 63.4
 Median 59.0 57.0 57.0 61.0 60.0 59.0 67.0 61.0 62.0 64.0 62.0 62.0
 Range 18 to 83 19 to 83 21 to 83 18 to 83 21 to 83 23 to 83 18 to 83 22 to 83 22 to 83 18 to 83 27 to 83 32 to 83
 Male, n (%) 62,284 (55.3) 403 (46.4) 224 (46.6) 44,790 (59.2) 508 (57.0) 286 (61.0) 8527 (58.2) 336 (65.6) 253 (67.8) 12,789 (60.5) 515 (63.7) 312 (68.1)
Physician specialty, n (%)
 Primary care Physician 21,585 (19.1) 122 (14.0) 72 (15.0) 13,203 (17.5) 129 (14.5) 40 (8.5) 1850 (12.6) 38 (7.4) 37 (9.9) 2228 (10.5) 72 (8.9) 30 (6.6)
 Internal medicine 24,512 (21.7) 146 (16.8) 80 (16.6) 15,970 (21.1) 157 (17.6) 94 (20.0) 2622 (17.9) 74 (14.5) 37 (9.9) 3533 (16.7) 126 (15.6) 75 (16.4)
 Cardiology 4160 (3.7) 26 (3.0) 20 (4.2) 2774 (3.7) 24 (2.7) 12 (2.6) 1103 (7.5) 41 (8.0) 19 (5.1) 1182 (5.6) 57 (7.1) 33 (7.2)
 Nephrology 26,862 (23.8) 251 (28.9) 154 (32.0) 18,608 (24.6) 298 (33.4) 169 (36.0) 2436 (16.6) 71 (13.9) 61 (16.4) 4646 (22.0) 150 (18.6) 85 (18.6)
 Hospital 11,941 (10.6) 120 (13.8) 67 (13.9) 9110 (12.0) 122 (13.7) 59 (12.6) 2744 (18.7) 137 (26.8) 122 (32.7) 4148 (19.6) 204 (25.2) 128 (27.9)
 Other 21,346 (18.9) 175 (20.1) 74 (15.4) 14,304 (18.9) 144 (16.2) 79 (16.8) 3563 (24.3) 135 (26.4) 87 (23.3) 4882 (23.1) 172 (21.3) 95 (20.7)
 Unknown 2324 (2.1) 29 (3.3) 14 (2.9) 1647 (2.2) 17 (1.9) 16 (3.4) 335 (2.3) 16 (3.1) 10 (2.7) 525 (2.5) 27 (3.3) 12 (2.6)
Previous use of steroidal MRAs
 Spironolactone 2949 (2.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 2900 (3.8) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 1774 (12.1) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 3087 (14.6) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
 Eplerenone 174 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 159 (0.2) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 97 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0) 144 (0.7) 0 (0.0) 0 (0.0)
Medications, n (%)
 Angiotensin II receptor blockers 21,797 (19.3) 256 (29.5) 155 (32.2) 21,943 (29.0) 339 (38.0) 198 (42.2) 3036 (20.7) 125 (24.4) 89 (23.9) 5874 (27.8) 251 (31.1) 145 (31.7)
 ACE inhibitors 34,066 (30.2) 295 (33.9) 169 (35.1) 34,146 (45.2) 438 (49.2) 248 (52.9) 5445 (37.2) 223 (43.6) 151 (40.5) 9565 (45.2) 400 (49.5) 237 (51.7)
 Renin inhibitors 737 (0.7) 14 (1.6) 13 (2.7) 1052 (1.4) 25 (2.8) 17 (3.6) 116 (0.8) 7 (1.4) 2 (0.5) 343 (1.6) 19 (2.4) 8 (1.7)
 β-blockers 33,078 (29.3) 351 (40.4) 198 (41.2) 30,472 (40.3) 468 (52.5) 285 (60.8) 8297 (56.6) 316 (61.7) 225 (60.3) 13,715 (64.9) 531 (65.7) 321 (70.1)
 Calcium- channel blockers 24,880 (22.1) 308 (35.4) 177 (36.8) 22,904 (30.3) 377 (42.3) 215 (45.8) 4238 (28.9) 137 (26.8) 108 (29.0) 7493 (35.4) 279 (34.5) 175 (38.2)
 Vasodilators 11,115 (9.9) 164 (18.9) 117 (24.3) 12,443 (16.5) 233 (26.2) 123 (26.2) 3512 (24.0) 142 (27.7) 105 (28.2) 7228 (34.2) 259 (32.1) 162 (35.4)
 Diuretics 25,848 (22.9) 363 (41.8) 228 (47.4) 25,907 (34.3) 477 (53.5) 259 (55.2) 7291 (49.8) 313 (61.1) 227 (60.9) 12,900 (61.0) 580 (71.8) 320 (69.9)
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension 78,431 (69.6) 672 (77.3) 381 (79.2) 65,617 (86.8) 801 (89.9) 425 (90.6) 12,209 (83.3) 420 (82.0) 275 (73.7) 19,502 (92.2) 727 (90.0) 417 (91.0)
 CVD 14,518 (12.9) 133 (15.3) 72 (15.0) 15,907 (21.0) 224 (25.1) 96 (20.5) 7166 (48.9) 266 (52.0) 176 (47.2) 11,645 (55.1) 438 (54.2) 250 (54.6)
 IHD 14,234 (12.6) 115 (13.2) 70 (14.6) 17,319 (22.9) 221 (24.8) 89 (19.0) 6932 (47.3) 233 (45.5) 163 (43.7) 12,440 (58.8) 462 (57.2) 267 (58.3)
 LVH 3163 (2.8) 35 (4.0) 23 (4.8) 3150 (4.2) 75 (8.4) 31 (6.6) 2819 (19.2) 143 (27.9) 102 (27.3) 4632 (21.9) 198 (24.5) 110 (24.0)
 Anemia 23,359 (20.7) 241 (27.7) 110 (22.9) 21,008 (27.8) 240 (26.9) 126 (26.9) 5616 (38.3) 157 (30.7) 111 (29.8) 9710 (45.9) 289 (35.8) 168 (36.7)
 Hyperkalemia 3257 (2.9) 32 (3.7) 12 (2.5) 4496 (5.9) 37 (4.2) 18 (3.8) 1079 (7.4) 18 (3.5) 12 (3.2) 2671 (12.6) 61 (7.5) 28 (6.1)
Healthcare costs, $
 Mean 18,160 23,803 21,729 24,659 28,455 24,404 53,565 53,905 46,850 66,119 54,849 55,348
 95% CI 17,878 to 18,442 20,351 to 27,256 17,699 to 25,759 24,263 to 25,054 24,362 to 32,548 20,706 to 28,103 51,882 to 55,248 44,942 to 62,868 37,678 to 56,022 64,579 to 67,659 48,251 to 61,448 46,433 to 64,263
 SD 48,268 51,857 44,981 55,491 62,246 40,763 103,912 103,231 90,084 114,247 95,549 97,083
 Median 5720 8120 7558 10,059 11,758 12,535 19,661 20,854 16,934 29,288 25,929 24,633
Time to first treatment, daysa
 Mean 167.6 52.7 177.8 53.0 139.1 55.2 146.2 54.6
 95% CI 159.7 to 175.6 47.9 to 57.6 170.2 to 185.4 48.0 to 57.9 128.9 to 149.2 49.9 to 60.5 138.2 to 154.3 49.6 to 59.6
 SD 119.1 54.5 115.3 54.7 117.4 52.4 11,116.8 52.5
 Median 184.0 32.0 196.0 33.0 118.5 37.0 123.0 35.0
  1. CI confidence interval, CKD chronic kidney disease, CVD cardiovascular disease, DKD diabetic kidney disease, ESRD end-stage renal disease, GP general practitioner, HF heart failure, HMO health maintenance organization, IHD ischemic heart disease, LVH left ventricular hypertrophy, PPO preferred provider organization, MRA mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, SD standard deviation, Spiro spironolactone
  2. aNo pre-inclusion MRA use