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Table 2 Odds ratios (95% CIs) for net endogenous acid production and risk of microalbuminuria (a), high normoalbuminuria (b), and high normoalbuminuria or microalbuminuria (c)

From: Association of estimated dietary acid load with albuminuria in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study

(a) Quartile of net endogenous acid production P for trend
Men Q1 (< 34.0 mEq/day) Q2 (34.0 to 43.4 mEq/day) Q3 (43.5 to 53.3 mEq/day) Q4 (≥53.4 mEq/day)  
Cases, n 147 154 151 178  
Control, n 417 411 415 386  
Unadjusted 1.00 (reference) 1.06 (0.82 to 1.38) 1.03 (0.79 to 1.35) 1.31 (1.01 to 1.69) 0.0598
Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.11 (0.84 to 1.46) 1.14 (0.87 to 1.50) 1.49 (1.14 to 1.95) 0.0047
Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.11 (0.84 to 1.47) 1.15 (0.87 to 1.53) 1.47 (1.12 to 1.94) 0.0074
Model 3 1.00 (reference) 1.12 (0.83 to 1.50) 1.19 (0.88 to 1.61) 1.47 (1.08 to 1.99) 0.0130
Women Q1 (< 27.7 mEq/day) Q2 (27.7 to 34.8 mEq/day) Q3 (34.9 to 43.1 mEq/day) Q4 (≥43.2 mEq/day)  
Cases, n 142 171 187 205  
Control, n 354 324 309 291  
Unadjusted 1.00 (reference) 1.32 (1.01 to 1.72) 1.51 (1.16 to 1.97) 1.76 (1.35 to 2.29) < 0.0001
Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.20 (0.90 to 1.60) 1.56 (1.18 to 2.08) 1.60 (1.20 to 2.13) 0.0003
Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.14 (0.85 to 1.52) 1.54 (1.15 to 2.06) 1.57 (1.18 to 2.11) 0.0004
Model 3 1.00 (reference) 1.09 (0.80 to 1.50) 1.65 (1.19 to 2.27) 1.54 (1.11 to 2.14) 0.0014
(b) Quartile of net endogenous acid production P for trend
Men Q1 (< 34.0 mEq/day) Q2 (34.0 to 43.0 mEq/day) Q3 (43.1 to 53.0 mEq/day) Q4 (≥53.1 mEq/day)  
Cases, n 238 258 239 256  
Control, n 417 397 416 399  
Unadjusted 1.00 (reference) 1.14 (0.91 to 1.42) 1.01 (0.80 to 1.26) 1.12 (0.90 to 1.41) 0.5284
Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.15 (0.92 to 1.45) 1.07 (0.85 to 1.35) 1.22 (0.97 to 1.53) 0.1642
Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.15 (0.91 to 1.44) 1.06 (0.84 to 1.34) 1.19 (0.95 to 1.50) 0.2190
Model 3 1.00 (reference) 1.13 (0.89 to 1.43) 1.06 (0.83 to 1.35) 1.18 (0.93 to 1.51) 0.2391
Women Q1 (< 27.2 mEq/day) Q2 (27.2 to 34.6 mEq/day) Q3 (34.7 to 43.2 mEq/day) Q4 (≥43.2 mEq/day)  
Cases, n 344 355 359 393  
Control, n 338 327 324 289  
Unadjusted 1.00 (reference) 1.07 (0.86 to 1.32) 1.09 (0.88 to 1.35) 1.34 (1.08 to 1.65) 0.0099
Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.05 (0.85 to 1.31) 1.11 (0.89 to 1.38) 1.32 (1.06 to 1.65) 0.0124
Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.04 (0.83 to 1.29) 1.10 (0.88 to 1.37) 1.32 (1.06 to 1.65) 0.0130
Model 3 1.00 (reference) 1.06 (0.84 to 1.33) 1.13 (0.89 to 1.43) 1.34 (1.05 to 1.70) 0.0163
(c) Quartile of net endogenous acid production P for trend
Men Q1 (< 34.2 mEq/day) Q2 (34.2 to 43.3 mEq/day) Q3 (43.4 to 53.3 mEq/day) Q4 (≥53.4 mEq/day)  
Cases, n 393 411 391 426  
Control, n 420 401 421 387  
Unadjusted 1.00 (reference) 1.10 (0.90 to 1.33) 0.99 (0.82 to 1.21) 1.18 (0.97 to 1.43) 0.2155
Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.11 (0.91 to 1.36) 1.07 (0.87 to 1.30) 1.30 (1.07 to 1.59) 0.0212
Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.11 (0.91 to 1.36) 1.06 (0.87 to 1.30) 1.27 (1.04 to 1.56) 0.0414
Model 3 1.00 (reference) 1.09 (0.88 to 1.35) 1.09 (0.88 to 1.35) 1.28 (1.02 to 1.59) 0.0407
Women Q1 (< 27.7 mEq/day) Q2 (27.7 to 34.9 mEq/day) Q3 (35.0 to 43.6 mEq/day) Q4 (≥43.7 mEq/day)  
Cases, n 504 533 541 578  
Control, n 354 326 318 280  
Unadjusted 1.00 (reference) 1.15 (0.95 to 1.39) 1.20 (0.98 to 1.45) 1.45 (1.19 to 1.77) 0.0003
Model 1 1.00 (reference) 1.10 (0.90 to 1.34) 1.20 (0.98 to 1.47) 1.41 (1.15 to 1.74) 0.0007
Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.07 (0.87 to 1.31) 1.19 (0.97 to 1.45) 1.40 (1.14 to 1.72) 0.0010
Model 3 1.00 (reference) 1.08 (0.87 to 1.33) 1.21 (0.97 to 1.50) 1.39 (1.11 to 1.74) 0.0028
  1. Net endogenous acid production = 54.5 × protein (g/day) / potassium (mEq/day) − 10.2
  2. ‘Controls’ means normoalbuminuric cases (ACR < 1.13 mg/mmol)
  3. Model 1 was adjusted for age (years, continuous); Model 2 was adjusted as for model 1 plus body mass index (kg/m2, continuous), physical activity (metabolic equivalent task hour, continuous), smoking status (never-smoker, former smoker, or current smoker), alcohol consumption (< 150 g, 150–299 g, 300–449 g, > 450 g ethanol/week), energy intake(kcal/day, quartiles); and Model 3 was adjusted as for model 2 plus eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2, continuous), dietary salt intake (g/day, continuous), pulse pressure (mmHg, continuous), diabetes (yes or no), and hypertention (yes or no)
  4. In model 2 and model 3, the number of subjects to be analyzed decreased by 4 men and 3 women for (a), for 4 men and 7 women (b) and 5 men and 8 women for (c) due to missing values for physical activity