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Table 3 Odds ratios (95% CIs) for protein (a) or potassium (b) intake and risk of microalbuminuria

From: Association of estimated dietary acid load with albuminuria in Japanese adults: a cross-sectional study

(a) Quartile of protein intake P for trend
Men Q1 (< 60.3 g/day) Q2 (60.3 to 69.6 g/day) Q3 (69.7 to 78.5 g/day) Q4 (≥78.6 g/day)  
Cases, n 146 156 161 167  
Controls, n 418 410 403 398  
Unadjusted 1.00 (reference) 1.09 (0.84 to 1.42) 1.14 (0.88 to 1.49) 1.20 (0.93 to 1.56) 0.1554
Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.93 (0.71 to 1.23) 0.90 (0.68 to 1.18) 0.83 (0.63 to 1.09) 0.1738
Model 2 1.00 (reference) 1.09 (0.82 to 1.45) 1.09 (0.81 to 1.47) 1.01 (0.74 to 1.38) 0.9946
Model 3 1.00 (reference) 1.11 (0.82 to 1.50) 1.07 (0.78 to 1.47) 0.96 (0.69 to 1.35) 0.7172
Women Q1 (< 65.0 g/day) Q2 (65.0 to 71.8 g/day) Q3 (71.9 to 79.9 g/day) Q4 (≥80.0 g/day)  
Cases, n 154 158 186 207  
Controls, n 341 338 310 289  
Unadjusted 1.00 (reference) 1.04 (0.79 to 1.35) 1.33 (1.02 to 1.73) 1.59 (1.22 to 2.06) < 0.0001
Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.95 (0.71 to 1.28) 1.09 (0.82 to 1.45) 1.17 (0.88 to 1.55) 0.1824
Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.995 (0.74 to 1.34) 1.09 (0.82 to 1.46) 1.21 (0.91 to 1.62) 0.1476
Model 3 1.00 (reference) 0.97 (0.71 to 1.34) 1.11 (0.81 to 1.51) 1.19 (0.87 to 1.63) 0.1830
(b) Quartile of potassium intake     P for trend
Men Q1 (< 2246.2 mEq/day) Q2 (2246.2 to 2796.1 mEq/day) Q3 (2796.2 to 3451.1 mEq/day) Q4 (≥3451.2 mEq/day)  
Cases, n 168 157 146 159  
Controls, n 397 408 418 406  
Unadjusted 1.00 (reference) 0.91 (0.70 to 1.18) 0.83 (0.64 to 1.07) 0.93 (0.72 to 1.20) 0.4288
Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.78 (0.59 to 1.02) 0.64 (0.49 to 0.84) 0.63 (0.48 to 0.83) 0.0005
Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.84 (0.64 to 1.11) 0.70 (0.52 to 0.93) 0.70 (0.52 to 0.94) 0.0101
Model 3 1.00 (reference) 0.83 (0.62 to 1.12) 0.64 (0.47 to 0.88) 0.63 (0.44 to 0.89) 0.0035
Women Q1 (< 2860.8 mEq/day) Q2 (2860.8 to 3417.8 mEq/day) Q3 (3417.9 to 4056.2 mEq/day) Q4 (≥4056.3 mEq/day)  
Cases, n 191 179 172 163  
Controls, n 305 316 325 332  
Unadjusted 1.00 (reference) 0.91 (0.70 to 1.17) 0.85 (0.65 to 1.09) 0.78 (0.60 to 1.02) 0.0573
Model 1 1.00 (reference) 0.78 (0.59 to 1.04) 0.71 (0.53 to 0.94) 0.64 (0.48 to 0.85) 0.0021
Model 2 1.00 (reference) 0.80 (0.60 to 1.06) 0.71 (0.53 to 0.95) 0.67 (0.50 to 0.89) 0.0050
Model 3 1.00 (reference) 0.83 (0.61 to 1.13) 0.74 (0.54 to 1.02) 0.65 (0.46 to 0.92) 0.0116
  1. Protein and potassium intake is calculated from a food frequency questionnaire and energy adjusted by the residual method
  2. ‘Controls’ means normoalbuminuric cases (ACR < 1.13 mg/mmol)
  3. Model 1 was adjusted for age (years, continuous); Model 2 was adjusted as for model 1 plus body mass index (kg/m2, continuous), physical activity (metabolic equivalent task hour, continuous), smoking status (non-smoker, former smoker, or current smoker), alcohol consumption (< 150 g, 150–299 g, 300–449 g, > 450 g ethanol/week), energy intake (kcal/day, quartiles); and Model 3 was adjusted as for model 2 plus eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2, continuous), dietary salt intake (g/day, continuous), pulse pressure (mmHg, continuous), diabetes (yes or no), and hypertention (yes or no)
  4. In model 2 and model 3, the number of subjects to be analyzed decreased by 4 men and 3 women due to missing values for physical activity