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Table 1 Clinical, psychological and environmental characteristics of adolescents

From: Quality of life in adolescents with chronic kidney disease who initiate haemodialysis treatment

N = 32 n (%)
Mean ± SD
Median [Q1; Q3]
1-Clinical characteristics
 Age (years) 13.9 ± 2.0
 Sex
  Female 12 (37.5)
  Male 20 (62.5)
 Age at primary diagnosis (years)a3 5.8 [0.8; 10.8]
  0–5 years 16 (55.2)
  6–10 years 7 (24.1)
  11–17 years 6 (20.7)
 Age at CKD diagnosis (years)a1 8.1 [1.9; 13.1]
  0–5 years 11 (35.5)
  6–10 years 12 (38.7)
  11–17 years 8 (25.8)
 Delay between primary diagnosis and current HD 8.6 [2.0; 11.7]
 Primary diagnosis
  Congenital nephropathies
   CAKUT 9 (28.1)
   Hereditary nephropathies 13 (40.6)
  Acquired nephropathies
   Glomerulonephritis 5 (15.6)
   Vascular 3 (9.4)
   Unknown 2 (6.3)
 Medical history
  Renal transplantation and/or HD and/or PDb 8 (25)
  No 24 (75)
 Vascular access of HD
  Arteriovenous fistula 14 (43.8)
  Central catheter 16 (50.0)
  Arteriovenous fistula and central catheter 2 (6.2)
 Number of weekly HD sessions 3.0 [3.0; 3.0]
 Duration of a HD session (hour) 4.0 [3.0; 4.0]
 Growth failure
  Yes 9 (28,1)
  No 23 (71.9)
 Anaemia
  Yes 23 (71,9)
  No 9 (28.1)
 Number of comorbidities 3 [2.0; 3.7]
  Neither 2 (6.3)
  1 5 (15.6)
   ≥ 2 25 (78.1)
 Number of treatments 7.1 ± 1.1
2- Psychological characteristics
 Kidcope
  Distractiona7 20 (80)
  Social withdrawala8 8 (33.3)
  Cognitive restructuringa9 19 (82.6)
  Self-criticisma10 7 (31.8)
  Blaming othersa11 3 (14.3)
  Problem solvinga8 14 (58.3)
  Emotional regulation -a9 10 (43.5)
  Emotional regulation +a9 15 (65.2)
  Wishful thinkinga9 14 (60.9)
  Social support a9 18 (78.3)
  Resignationa9 21 (91.3)
c Active coping strategiesa7
  Utilization strategy
Score
24 (96)
3.3 [2.0; 5.7]
d Avoidant coping strategiesa7
  Utilization strategy
Score
24 (96)
3.3 [2.5; 6.2]
e Negative coping strategiesa10
  Utilization strategy Score 8 (36.4)
0.0 [0.0; 3.3]
3-Environmental characteristics
 Age of parents (years)a7 46.5 ± 7.3
 Family structurea7
  Not separated parents 13 (52)
  Separated parents 12 (48)
 Siblinga8
  Yes 22 (91,7)
  No 2 (8.3)
 Place of residencea8
  Urban 12 (50)
  Rural 12 (50)
 Time between home and HD (minutes)a9 60.0 [15–180]
   < 20 min 3 (13)
  20 to 60 min 13 (56.5)
   > 60 min 7 (30.4)
 Parental employmenta7
  Yes 19 (76)
  No 6 (24)
 Financial situationa7
  Difficulty 13 (52)
  Not difficulty 12 (48)
 Adolescent’s schoolinga7
  Yes 21 (84)
  No 4 (16)
  1. aNumber of missing data
  2. b5 adolescents had kidney transplantation and 3 had peritoneal dialysis
  3. c = Problem solving + emotional regulation + social support + cognitive restructuring
  4. d = Distraction + social withdrawal + wishful thinking + resignation
  5. e = Self-criticism + blaming others
  6. SD standard deviation, CKD chronic kidney disease, CAKUT congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract, HD haemodialysis, PD peritoneal dialysis