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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population

From: Association between vitamin D level and hematuria from a dipstick test in a large scale population based study: Korean National Health and nutrition examination survey

  Total (n = 20,240) Normal (≥ 30 ng/mL) (n = 813) Inadequacy (<  30 ng/mL) (n = 19,427) P
Age (years) 49.4 ± 16.3 57.9 ± 14.1 49.1 ± 16.3 <  0.001
Female (%) 53.6 46.6 53.9 <  0.001
Post-menopausal women (%) 26.6 26.2 36.9 <  0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.7 ± 3.4 23.4 ± 3.1 23.7 ± 3.4 0. 006
Obesity classification (%)     0.026
 Under weight 4.1 3.4 4.1  
 Normal weight 39.1 41.4 39.0  
 Over weight 24.0 26.7 23.9  
 Obesity 32.8 28.4 33.0  
 Alcohol (%) 72.8 68.2 73.0 0.003
Smoking (%)     0.010
 None 57.9 53.0 58.1  
 Former smoker 20.5 24.1 20.3  
 Current smoker 21.6 22.9 21.6  
 Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 119.6 ± 17.1 123.3 ± 17.5 119.4 ± 17.1 <  0.001
 Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 76.2 ± 10.5 76.9 ± 10.3 76.2 ± 10.5 0.066
Blood pressure status (%)     <  0.001
 Prehypertension 25 27.3 24.9  
 Hypertension 31.7 41.2 31.3  
 Fasting blood glucose (mg/dL) 98.1 ± 21.7 99.7 ± 19.6 98.0 ± 21.8 0.016
Impaired glucose tolerance (%)     <  0.001
 Impaired fasting glucose 19.7 19.6 22.7  
 Diabetes mellitus 10.4 10.2 13.4  
 Cardiovascular disease (%) 2.6 3.7 2.5 0.063
 Hypercholesterolemia (%) 15.0 17.3 14.9 0.071
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 14.1 ± 1.6 14.1 ± 1.5 14.1 ± 1.6 0.511
 Anemia (%) 8.0 9.2 7.9 0.229
 Estimated GFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 94.7 ± 17.2 83.7 ± 17.7 88.6 ± 17.3 <  0.001
 Estimated GFR under 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (%) 3.7 7.3 3.6 <  0.001
 Serum 25(OH)D (ng/mL)a 16.6 (13.1–20.8) 33.1 (31.4–35.7) 16.3 (12.9–20.2) <  0.001
 Glycosuria (%) 2.5 2.1 2.5 0.534
 Proteinuria (%) 1.1 0.6 1.1 0.215
 Hematuria (%) 15.5 12.3 15.7 0.011
  1. GFR glomerular filtration rate, 25(OH)D 25-hydroxyvitamin D
  2. aData are expressed as the median (interquartile range) when the data distribution was skewed