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Table 3 Odds ratios for hematuria according to serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels

From: Association between vitamin D level and hematuria from a dipstick test in a large scale population based study: Korean National Health and nutrition examination survey

Groups Univariate Multivariatea
OR (95% CI) P OR (95% CI) P
Quartiles
 1st quartile (≥ 20.8 ng/mL) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 2nd quartile (16.4–20.7 ng/mL) 1.07 (0.960–1.196) 0.219 1.14 (1.014–1.284) 0.028
 3rd quartile (13.0–16.3 ng/mL) 1.20 (1.072–1.336) 0.001 1.26 (1.114–1.415) <  0.001
 4th quartile (<  13.0 ng/mL) 1.35 (1.210–1.501) <  0.001 1.40 (1.240–1.572) <  0.001
Vitamin D inadequacy
 Normal (≥ 30 ng/mL) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Inadequacy (<  30 ng/mL) 1.33 (1.071–1.639) 0.010 1.44 (1.150–1.800) 0.001
Vitamin D deficiency
 Normal (≥ 20 ng/mL) 1 (reference)   1 (reference)  
 Deficiency (<  20 ng/mL) 1.20 (1.102–1.309) <  0.001 1.25 (1.137–1.373) <  0.001
  1. aAdjusted for age, gender, alcohol, smoking, diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, anemia, chronic kidney disease, glycosuria, and proteinuria