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Table 2 Episodes of cannulation

From: Variables associated with successful vascular access cannulation in hemodialysis patients: a prospective cohort study

Variable Mean (SD) Range
 Nurse confidence with success before cannulation (0–10) 8.6 (2.2) 0–10
 Vascular access length (cm) 12.1 (3.7) 2–30
  n (%)
 Stenosis 175 (9.0)
 Bruit 189 (9.7)
 Stent in useable section of fistula 69 (3.5)
 Oedema 59 (3.0)
 Bruising 251 (12.9)
 Hematoma present 64 (3.3)
 AVF soft with tendency to blow 312 (16.0)
 Tourniquet used 1225 (62.9)
 Ultrasound used 80 (4.1)
 Cannulation technique
  Rope ladder 1436 (73.8)
  Area 481 (25.0)
 Anaesthetic
  None 546 (28.1)
  Topical 1085 (55.8)
  Subcutaneous 287 (14.7)
  Both 28 (1.4)
 Standard needle length 1875 (96.4)
 Arterial needle retrograde 1523 (78.3)
 Arterial needle bevel up 1587 (81.6)
 Arterial needle rotated after insertion 824 (42.3)
 Venous needle bevel up 1610 (82.7)
 Venous needle rotated after insertion 685 (35.2)
 Arterial needle gauge
  14 158 (8.1)
  15 1610 (82.7)
  16 160 (8.2)
  17 12 (0.6)
 Venous needle gauge
  14 157 (8.1)
  15 1603 (82.4)
  16 161 (8.3)
  17 12 (0.6)
  1. AVF Arteriovenous fistula