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Table 4 Univariable repeated measures logistic regression modelling for first-time cannulation success

From: Variables associated with successful vascular access cannulation in hemodialysis patients: a prospective cohort study

Variable Univariable OR (95% CI) p-value
Patient variables
 Patient age 1.01 (1.00–1.02) 0.19
 Patient gender
  Male 1.09 (0.68–1.76) 0.72
  Female 1  
 BMI 0.95 (0.95–1.01) 0.12
 Steroids
  No 1.65 (0.61–4.44) 0.32
  Yes 1  
 PAI
  No 0.83 (0.32–2.11) 0.69
  Yes 1  
 Diabetes
  No 1.02 (0.64–1.63) 0.94
  Yes 1  
 PVD
  No 0.89 (0.53–1.49) 0.65
  Yes 1  
 Heart disease
  No 1.05 (0.66–1.68) 0.84
  Yes 1  
 Hypertension
  No 1.73 (0.91–3.29) 0.09
  Yes 1  
 Hypotension
  No 0.76 (0.32–1.81) 0.54
  Yes 1  
 Smoker
  No 0.58 (0.14–2.36) 0.44
  Yes 1  
 Log age of access 2.01 (1.65–2.46) < 0.001
 AV type
  Fistula 3.22 (1.79–5.80) < 0.001
  Graft 1  
 AVF location   0.82
  Brachio-cephalic 1.20 (0.45–3.19) 0.72
  Radio-cephalic 1.35 (0.50–3.68) 0.59
  Brachio-basilic 1  
 Surgical revision <3mths
  No 1.71 (0.90–3.25) 0.10
  Yes 1  
 Depth of AVF   < 0.001
  Superficial 15.0 (5.64–40.0) < 0.001
  Palpable 11.3 (4.34–29.4) < 0.001
  Non-palpable 1  
 Vessel
  Straight 1.01 (0.59–1.72) 0.98
  Zig-zag 1  
vBifurcation   0.21
  Nil 0.58 (0.23–1.45) 0.71
  Single 0.91 (0.33–2.49) 0.86
  Multiple 1  
 Aneurysm   
  Yes 2.64 (1.34–5.18) 0.005
  No 1  
Episodes of cannulation variables
 Log nurse confidence 1.19 (1.01–1.40) 0.03
 Length of vessel 1.00 (0.94–1.06) 0.87
 Bruit present – indicates stenosis
  No 0.71 (0.30–1.65) 0.42
  Yes 1  
 Stent in situ   
  No 3.17 (1.32–7.61) 0.01
  Yes 1  
 Oedema present   
  No 3.22 (1.40–7.38) 0.006
  Yes 1  
 Bruising present
  No 2.42 (1.39–4.19) 0.002
  Yes 1  
 Hematoma present
  No 2.46 (1.02–5.90) 0.04
  Yes 1  
 AVF soft with tendency for extravasation
  No 1.32 (0.74–2.36) 0.35
  Yes 1  
 Tourniquet use   
  No 1.25 (0.76–2.07) 0.37
  Yes 1  
 Ultrasound use
  No 13.9 (8.18–23.6) < 0.001
  Yes 1  
 Standard needle length
  No 2.56 (0.35–18.8) 0.36
  Yes 1  
 Arterial needle antegrade insertion
  No 1.76 (0.92–3.79) 0.09
  Yes 1  
 Arterial needle bevel up
  No 0.68 (0.40–1.14) 0.14
  Yes 1  
 Arterial needle rotated after insertion
  No 0.57 (0.36–0.91) 0.02
  Yes 1  
 Venous needle bevel up
  No 0.64 (0.37–1.10) 0.10
  Yes 1  
 Venous needle rotated after insertion
  No 0.74 (0.45–1.23) 0.25
  Yes 1  
 Arterial needle gauge   0.66
  14 2.78 (0.30–25.7) 0.37
  15 2.03 (0.26–16.0) 0.50
  16 1.52 (0.17–13.6) 0.70
  17 1  
 Venous needle gauge   0.10
  14 7.65 (1.40–41.6) 0.02
  15 4.58 (1.12–18.8) 0.03
  16 3.39 (0.71–16.1) 0.13
  17 1  
Nurse variables
 Nurse age 0.99 (0.96–1.02) 0.41
 Years as a RN 0.98 (0.96–1.00) 0.09
 Years as HD nurse 0.98 (0.96–1.01) 0.29
 Gender
  Male 4.88 (1.42–16.7) 0.01
  Female 1  
 Employment status
  Fulltime 1.32 (0.83–2.09) 0.25
  Part time/casual 1  
 Job Title
  RN 1.16 (0.66–2.02) 0.61
  CN / SDN 1  
 Highest education
  BN/RN 1.13 (0.66–1.94) 0.66
  Graduate or higher 1  
 Postgrad in renal nursing
  No 1.84 (1.15–2.93) 0.01
  Yes 1  
  1. OR Odds ratio, CI Confidence interval, BMI Body mass index, PAI Platelet aggregate inhibitor, PVD Peripheral vascular disease, AV Arteriovenous, AVF Arteriovenous fistula, RN Registered nurse, HD Hemodialysis, CN Clinical nurse, SDN Staff development nurse, BN Bachelors of nursing
  2. There were no missed cannulation from the following variables; therefore, they were removed from the model: AVG location lower arm, immunosuppressant, anticoagulant, local anaesthetic, and cannulation technique
  3. Current stenosis and bruit were highly correlated; therefore, removed current stenosis from the model
  4. No male nurse had ‘post-graduate certificate in renal nursing’; therefore, ‘male nurse’ was removed from the model