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Table 2 Serial Changes of Primary and Secondary Outcome Measures

From: The association between six month intra-dialytic resistance training and muscle strength or physical performance in patients with maintenance hemodialysis: a multicenter retrospective observational study

Parameter Baseline 6-Months Later Difference (95% CI)a P-value
Primary Outcome
 Average pKEMP-dBW, % 42.3 ± 14.9 45.7 ± 14.9 2.8 (1.3–4.3) <  0.001
 SPPB 10.0 ± 2.6 10.4 ± 2.5 0.6 (0.4–0.9) <  0.001
Secondary Outcome
 Right pKEMP-dBW, % 42.6 ± 15.2 46.5 ± 15.7 3.6 (1.9–5.3) < 0.001
 Left pKEMP-dBW, % 41.9 ± 15.5 44.8 ± 15.0 2.1 (0.5–3.7) 0.012
 Six minute walk distance, m 324 ± 175 317 ± 212 0 (−21–22) 0.988
  1. Continuous variables were summarized using the mean ± standard deviation
  2. aAdjusted for age and sex
  3. CI confidence interval, pKEMP-dBW percent knee extension muscle power to dry body weight, SPPB short physical performance battery