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Table 1 Differences in Demographic, Clinical, and Facility Characteristics among Kidney Transplant Patients Admitted with Cardiovascular Disease, by Transplant Hospital Status

From: Factors associated with adverse outcomes from cardiovascular events in the kidney transplant population: an analysis of national discharge data, hospital characteristics, and process measures

Demographic and Clinical Characteristics
  Non-transplant Hospital (n = 197) Transplant Hospital (n = 78) Total
(n = 275)
p-value
Hospitalizations (n,%) 3893, 49.9% 3910, 50.1%   
Year of admission     < 0.001
 2009 1182 (30.4%) 1349 (34.5%) 2531 (32.4%)  
 2010 1238 (31.8%) 1155 (29.5%) 2393 (30.7%)  
 2011 1473 (37.8%) 1406 (36.0%) 2879 (36.9%)  
Age, Median (Q1, Q3) 64 (55.0, 70.0) 62 (53.0, 69.0) 63 (54.0, 70.0) < 0.001
Female 1484 (38.1%) 1453 (37.2%) 2937 (37.6%) 0.37
Race, White 2337 (64.4%) 2109 (57.4%) 4446 (60.9%) < 0.001
Cardiovascular Diagnosis
 MI (410.x) 383 (9.8%) 305 (7.8%) 688 (8.8%) 0.002
 Stroke (997.x/436/437.1) 247 (6.3%) 461 (11.8%) 708 (9.1%) < 0.001
 CHF (428.x) 2110 (54.2%) 1968 (50.3%) 4078 (52.3%) < 0.001
 Dysrhythmia (427.x) 2138 (54.9%) 2027 (51.8%) 4165 (53.4%) 0.006
 Cardiac arrest (427.5/997.1) 85 (2.2%) 102 (2.6%) 187 (2.4%) 0.22
 Malignant HTN (402.x) 59 (1.5%) 85 (2.2%) 144 (1.8%) 0.03
Number of CV diagnosis     0.02
 1 2902 (74.5%) 3005 (76.9%) 5907 (75.7%)  
 ≥ 2 991 (25.5%) 905 (23.1%) 1896 (24.3%)  
Weighted Charlson score     < 0.001
 0 467 (12.0%) 828 (21.2%) 1295 (16.6%)  
 1 471 (12.1%) 754 (19.3%) 1225 (15.7%)  
 2 1158 (29.7%) 1102 (28.2%) 2260 (29.0%)  
 3+ 1797 (46.2%) 1226 (31.4%) 3023 (38.7%)  
Diabetes mellitus 2012 (51.7%) 1959 (50.1%) 3971 (50.9%) 0.16
Dialysis use in hospital 749 (19.2%) 356 (9.1%) 1105 (14.2%) < 0.001
Admission type     < 0.001
 Emergent/Urgent 2884 (88.3%) 2850 (83.1%) 5734 (85.6%)  
 Elective/Others 383 (11.7%) 581 (16.9%) 964 (14.4%)  
 Transferred in indicator 302 (7.8%) 509 (13.0%) 811 (10.4%) < 0.001
Cardiovascular Procedure (catheter-based or cardiac surgery) 757 (19.5%) 772 (19.7%) 1529 (19.6%) 0.74
Died in hospital 146 (3.8%) 117 (3.0%) 263 (3.4%) 0.06
Facility Structural Characteristics
Hospital Type     0.09
 Government, nonfederal 14 (7.1%) 12 (15.4%) 26 (9.5%)  
 Non-profit, non-gov’t 175 (88.8%) 62 (79.5%) 237 (86.2%)  
 Investor-owned 8 (4.1%) 4 (5.1%) 12 (4.4%)  
 Medical/surgical intensive care 191 (97.0%) 78 (100.0%) 269 (97.8%) 0.12
 Cardiac intensive care 141 (71.6%) 71 (91.0%) 212 (77.1%) < 0.001
 HMO hospital 17 (8.6%) 9 (11.5%) 26 (9.5%) 0.46
 PPO hospital 16 (8.1%) 3 (3.8%) 19 (6.9%) 0.21
 Specialty cardiology & cardiac surgery services 186 (94.4%) 77 (98.7%) 263 (95.6%) 0.12
 Freestanding/Satellite ED hospital 25 (12.7%) 6 (7.7%) 31 (11.3%) 0.24
 Multi-detector 64-slice spiral CT 171 (86.8%) 75 (96.2%) 246 (89.5%) 0.02
 Radiology interventional therapy 131 (66.5%) 73 (93.6%) 204 (74.2%) < 0.001
Hospital unit inpatient days     < 0.001
 First quartile 62 (31.5%) 6 (7.7%) 68 (24.7%)  
 Second quartile 58 (29.4%) 11 (14.1%) 69 (25.1%)  
 Third quartile 51 (25.9%) 18 (23.1%) 69 (25.1%)  
 Fourth quartile 26 (13.2%) 43 (55.1%) 69 (25.1%)  
Proportion of hospital unit Medicare discharges     < 0.001
 Median (Q1, Q3) 0.5 (0.4, 0.5) 0.4 (0.3, 0.4) 0.4 (0.4, 0.5)  
Proportion of hospital unit Medicaid discharges     < 0.001
 Median (Q1, Q3) 0.1 (0.1, 0.2) 0.2 (0.2, 0.3) 0.2 (0.1, 0.2)  
Number of Operating Rooms     < 0.001
 Median (Q1, Q3) 14 (10.0, 18.0) 26 (19.0, 37.0) 16 (11.0, 24.0)  
Total surgical operations     < 0.001
 Median (Q1, Q3) 10,927 20,764 12,152  
(8018, 15,101) (11,209, 27,502) (8504, 19,382)
Surgical intensity (Surgical procedures/inpatient beds/year)     0.31
 Median (Q1, Q3) 35.3 37.8 36.5  
(26.6, 46.5) (30.1, 48.4) (27.6, 47.1)
Hospital total expenses     < 0.001
 First quartile 62 (31.5%) 6 (7.7%) 68 (24.7%)  
 Second quartile 60 (30.5%) 9 (11.5%) 69 (25.1%)  
 Third quartile 58 (29.4%) 11 (14.1%) 69 (25.1%)  
 Fourth quartile 17 (8.6%) 52 (66.7%) 69 (25.1%)  
Physician FTEs/10 beds     0.62
 Median 0.3 0.3 0.3  
 Q1, Q3 0, 1.1 0, 1.7 0, 1.2  
 Range (0–23.5) (0–24.6) (0–24.6)  
Teaching Status     < 0.001
 Nonteaching 90 (54.2%) 18 (24.7%) 108 (45.2%)  
 Minor teaching 61 (36.8%) 15 (20.5%) 76 (20.6%)  
 Major teaching 15 (9.0%) 40 (54.8%) 55 (54.8%)  
FTEs nurses/10 beds     < 0.001
 Median 16.8 22.2 17.6  
 Q1, Q3 13.8, 19.9 17.4, 26.9 14.3, 22.3  
 Range (0.2–47.3) (0.2–41.6) (0.2–47.3)  
Hospital Process Factors – Timely & Effective Care: Heart Attack
 Fibrinolytic therapy received within 30 min of ED arrival (percentage) N = 58 N = 24 N = 82 0.88
  Median 50 41.5 50  
  Q1, Q3 0, 100 0, 100 0, 100  
 Aspirin at arrival (percentage) N = 194 N = 77 N = 271 0.18
  Median 100 100 100  
  Q1, Q3 99, 100 99, 100 99, 100  
 Time to transfer to another facility for acute coronary intervention (minutes) N = 37 N = 7 N = 44 0.08
  Median 78 42 73.5  
  Q1, Q3 57, 105 30, 121 51, 106.5  
 Time to ECG (minutes) N = 161 N = 51 N = 212 0.01
  Median 11 16 12  
  Q1, Q3 8, 18 8, 26 8, 19  
Hospital Mortality and Unplanned Hospital Visits
 Acute myocardial infarction 30-day mortality rate (percentage) N = 183 N = 75 N = 258 0.31
  Median 16.1 15.9 16  
  Q1, Q3 15.1, 17.1 14.6, 17.4 14.9, 17.1  
 Heart failure 30-day mortality rate (percentage) N = 186 N = 76 N = 262 0.10
  Median 10.9 10.7 10.8  
  Q1, Q3 10, 12 9.8, 11.8 10, 12  
 Acute myocardial infarction 30-day readmission rate (percentage) N = 183 N = 76 N = 259 0.13
  Median 20.1 20.5 20.2  
  Q1, Q3 19.2, 21.4 19.7, 21.5 19.3, 21.4  
 Heart failure 30-day readmission rate (percentage) N = 186 N = 76 N = 262 0.83
  Median 24.7 25.0 24.8  
  Q1, Q3 23.4, 26.6 23.4, 26.8 23.4, 26.7