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Table 2 Demographic data of patients with cerebral hemorrhage divided by dead or alive and control patients

From: Association between serum calcium levels and prognosis, hematoma volume, and onset of cerebral hemorrhage in patients undergoing hemodialysis

  Died (N = 32) Survived (N = 67) P value CH all (N = 99) Control (N = 339) P value
Age (year) 64.9 ± 9.2 64.7 ± 11.5 0.7 64.8 ± 10.7 67.4 ± 13.3 0.06
Male (%) 62.5 68.7 0.5 66.7 57.2 0.09
HD vintage (months)a 85 (30–169) 88 (27–177) 0.7 87 (29–177) 56 (23–122) 0.04
Cause of ESRD
 Chronic glomerulonephritis (%) 28 48   41 38  
 Diabetes (%) 44 31   35 28  
 Nephrosclerosis (%) 13 7   9 17  
 ADPKD (%) 6 7   7 4  
 Others (%) 6 6   6 6  
 Unknown (%) 3 0 0.3 1 7 0.02
Past history
 Diabetes mellitus (%) 44 37 0.5 39 35 0.4
 Ischemic heart disease (%) 34 9 0.002 17 34 < 0.001
 Atrial fibrillation (%) 3 12 0.11 9 10 0.8
 Heart valve repair or replacement (%) 16 2 0.008 6 4 0.2
 History of cerebral infarction (%) 31 34 0.8 33 25 0.09
 History of cerebral hemorrhage (%) 16 13 0.8 14 6 0.02
Medication
 Number of antihypertensive drugs 1.6 ± 1.2 1.9 ± 1.3 0.3 1.8 ± 1.3 1.6 ± 1.5 0.09
 Antiplatelet use (%) 65 36 0.008 45 39 0.3
 Warfarin use (%) 25 7 0.02 13 7 0.07
 Statin use (%) 17 9 0.3 11 16 0.3
 Vitamin D use (%) 54 66 0.3 62 67 0.1
 Phosphate binder use (%) 71 68 0.8 69 65 0.5
 CaCO3 use (%) 52 47 0.7 48 48 1.0
 Cinacalcet use (%) 13 18 0.6 16 17 0.9
 Walking independently (mRS3) (%) 77 86 0.2 83 80 0.5
Dialysis conditions
 Dialyzing time (hr)a 4 (3–4) 4 (3.5–4) 0.7 4 (3.5–4) 4 (3–4) 0.02
 Dry weight (kg) 52.4 ± 11.5 53.7 ± 11.5 0.4 53.3 ± 11.5 52.1 ± 11.0 0.3
 Fluid removal per dry weight proximate to the onset (%) 3.14 ± 2.04 3.35 ± 1.71 0.6 3.29 ± 1.81 3.10 ± 1.74 0.3
 Dialysate Ca concentration (mEq/L) 2.81 ± 0.14 2.79 ± 0.18 0.7 2.79 ± 0.17 2.75 NA
 Online HDF (%) 13 7 0.4 9 22 0.002
sBP pre-HD proximate to the onset (mmHg) 167 ± 31 167 ± 22 1.0 167 ± 25 150 ± 24 < 0.001
dBP pre-HD proximate to the onset (mmHg) 86 ± 14 87 ± 16 0.8 87 ± 16 78 ± 13 < 0.001
Pulse pressure proximate to the onset (mmHg) 81 ± 24 80 ± 15 1.0 80 ± 18 72 ± 21 < 0.001
 ESA (U/week) 6719 ± 3592 6296 ± 4556 0.6 6435 ± 4247 5513 ± 4396 0.03
 Epoetin (%) 38 28   31 9  
 Darbepoetin (%) 41 37   38 47  
 CERA (%) 13 18   16 27  
 Intravenous iron use (%) 22 27 0.6 25 19 0.08
Laboratory parameters
 Hb (g/dL) 10.6 ± 1.9 10.6 ± 1.5 0.4 10.6 ± 1.7 10.8 ± 1.4 0.09
 Ferritin (ng/mL)a 139 (54–284) 71 (31–167) 0.095 85 (34–212) 53 (21–154) 0.03
 TSAT (%) 21.3 ± 11.3 24.4 ± 12.9 0.4 23.4 ± 12.4 24.3 ± 13.0 0.6
 BUN (mg/dL) 61.4 ± 20.7 60.2 ± 14.9 0.8 60.6 ± 16.8 68.1 ± 18.2 < 0.001
 Creatinine (mg/dL) 9.1 ± 3.2 10.0 ± 3.1 0.4 9.8 ± 3.1 10.2 ± 3.4 0.2
 Corrected serum calcium (mg/dL) 9.93 ± 0.91 9.27 ± 0.86 0.001 9.48 ± 0.93 9.22 ± 0.92 0.01
 Phosphate (mg/dL) 5.47 ± 2.09 4.93 ± 1.47 0.3 5.09 ± 1.68 5.58 ± 1.57 0.007
 iPTH (pg/mL)a 122 (45–319) 124 (45–202) 0.7 124 (45–202) 72 (28–155) 0.007
 ALP (IU/L) 305 ± 103 285 ± 143 0.14 291 ± 131 282 ± 133 0.4
 Serum albumin (g/dL) 3.41 ± 0.56 3.62 ± 0.50 0.07 3.55 ± 0.53 3.56 ± 0.43 0.9
 CRP (mg/dL)a 0.39 (0.09–0.69) 0.17 (0.10–0.61) 0.3 0.20 (0.09–0.65) 0.18 (0.07–0.53) 0.2
 T-Chol (mg/dL) 152 ± 35 156 ± 38 0.9 155 ± 37 162 ± 37 0.07
 Triglyceride (mg/dL) 102 ± 60 89 ± 44 0.5 93 ± 49 106 ± 64 0.2
  1. ADPKD autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease, ALP alkaline phosphatase, BUN blood urea nitrogen, CERA continuous erythropoietin receptor activator, CRP C-reactive protein, dBP diastolic blood pressure, dBP pre-HD diastolic blood pressure pre-hemodialysis, ESRD end-stage renal disease, HD hemodialysis, iPTH intact parathyroid hormone, NIHSS National Institute of Health Stroke Scale, sBP systolic blood pressure, sBP pre-HD systolic blood pressure pre-hemodialysis, T-Chol total cholesterol, TSAT transferrin saturation
  2. Continuous variables are shown as mean ± standard deviation and categorical variables, as percentage or number (percentage)
  3. a Median (interquartile range)