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Fig. 3 | BMC Nephrology

Fig. 3

From: TRPP2 dysfunction decreases ATP-evoked calcium, induces cell aggregation and stimulates proliferation in T lymphocytes

Fig. 3

Analysis of intracellular calcium release, cell aggregation, chemotactic index and cell proliferation in normal and ADPKD T lymphocytes. a ATP-evoked calcium is lower in T lymphocytes of ADPKD2 patients compared with non-genetically defined ADPKD, ADPKD1 and control subjects (73.67 ± 13.02 for PKD2 and 244.8 ± 85.51 for CTRL: ***p < 0.001). CTRL (n = 25), RRT (n = 19), PKD (n = 44), PKD1 (n = 26) and PKD2 (n = 15). b No changes in PAF-evoked calcium release were observed among controls and ADPKD T lymphocytes. CTRL (n = 24), RRT (n = 17), PKD (n = 49), PKD1 (n = 24) and PKD2 (n = 14). The maximal calcium concentration in response to ATP or PAF in T lymphocytes was calculated as described in Fig. 2. c ADPKD T lymphocytes form clamps greater in size as compared with those of control (190 ± 68 for PKD2, 143 ± 14 for PKD1, 141 ± 28 for PKD and 91 ± 15 for control cells. PKD and PKD1 vs. CTRL: *p < 0.05, PKD2 vs. CTRL: ***p < 0.001). Images were acquired by using an inverted phase-contrast microscope equipped with a CCD camera. d In basal conditions, ADPKD T lymphocytes show a greater chemotactic index compared with control cells (0.75 ± 0.1 for PKD and 0.53 ± 0.1 for CTRL: ***p < 0.001). e After 48 h of culture, ADPKD T lymphocytes grew faster than control cells (87,725 ± 27,173 for PKD and 58,003 ± 14,467 for CTRL: ***p < 0.001). CTRL = healthy controls; RRT = non-ADPKD subjects undergoing renal replacement therapy; PKD = non-genetically determined subjects; PKD1 = PKD1-related subjects; PKD2 = PKD2-related subjects. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation calculated from at least two different experiments in duplicate. All values of calcium measurements after ATP and PAF stimulation in control and ADPKD T lymphocytes are shown in Additional file 2: Table S2

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