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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the included studies

From: Exercise therapy improves eGFR, and reduces blood pressure and BMI in non-dialysis CKD patients: evidence from a meta-analysis

Author and Year Study population Participants (T/C) Intervention Study duration Parameters Main results
Miele 2017 CKD 3 46(25/21) Aerobic exercise three times a week 16 Weeks eGFR; TC; TG LDL; HDL; BMI No significant difference in eGFR between the two groups
Hiraki 2017 CKD3–4 28(14/14) Aerobic and resistance exercise 12 Months eGFR No significant difference in eGFR between the two groups
Kiuchi 2017 CKD3–5 40(20/20) Moderate exercise, 150 min a week, gradually increasing to 300 min a week 12 Months eGFR; SCr; Blood pressure Decreased SCr; Improved eGFR
Leehey 2016 CKD 2–4 32(14/18) Aerobic and resistance exercises three days a week lasted for 12 weeks, followed by Home-based exercises for 40 weeks. 12 Weeks
52 Weeks
eGFR; Systolic blood pressure; TC; TG LDL; HDL; BMI NO change eGFR, systolic blood pressure and blood lipid both after 12 and 52 Weeks
Aoike 2015 CKD3–4 29(14/15) Aerobic exercise, 3 times a week 12 weeks GFR; SCr; Blood pressure; BMI Decreased blood pressure and improved renal function
Greenwood 2015 CKD3–4 18(8/10) Aerobic and resistance exercises, 3 days a week 6 Months
12 Months
eGFR; SCr; Blood pressure; TC; LDL; HDL; BMI eGFR increased slightly after 6 months, Improvement mean rate of change in eGFR and SCr after 12 months, but no change blood pressure, blood lipid and creatinine
Howden 2015 CKD3–4 72(36/36) Aerobic and resistance exercises, 150 min a week 6 Months
12 Months
eGFR; SCr; Blood pressure; TC; LDL; HDL; BMI NO change in eGFR and blood pressure
after both 6 and 12 Months
Van Craenenbroeck 2015 CKD3–4 40(19/21) Home-based aerobic exercises,4 times a day, 10 min each time 3 Months eGFR; Blood pressure; TC; LDL; HDL; BMI NO improvement in eGFR and blood pressure
Baria 2014 CKD3–4 19(10/9) Aerobic exercise, 3 times a week 12 Weeks eGFR; Blood pressure; BMI Decreased Blood pressure and improved eGFR
Headley 2014 CKD 3 46(25/21) Aerobic exercise, 3 times a week 16 Weeks Blood pressure; BMI NO change in blood pressure
Headley 2012 CKD2–4 21(10/11) Aerobic exercise, 3 times a week for 24 weeks, followed by resistance exercise, 2 times a week for 24 weeks 24 Weeks
48 Weeks
eGFR; Blood pressure; TC; TG LDL; HDL; BMI TG increased at 24 weeks, but no change at 48 weeks. TC and LDL increased at 24 and 48 weeks, but no change eGFR, blood pressure and HDL
Toyama 2010 CKD2–4 19(10/9) Aerobic exercise once a week 12 Weeks eGFR Increased eGFR
Leehey 2009 CKD2–4 11(7/4) Aerobic exercise, 3 times a week for 6 weeks, followed by home-based exercise for 18 weeks 6 Weeks
24 Weeks
eGFR; SCr; Blood pressure; TC; TG; LDL; HDL Systolic blood pressure decreased slightly at 6 weeks, but GFR, blood lipid and blood pressure did not improve; no improvement between the two groups at 24 weeks
  1. Note: T Treatment group, C Control group, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate (According to MDRD formula). TC Total cholesterol, TG Triglyceride, LDL Low density lipoprotein, HDL High density lipoprotein, BMI Body mass index