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Table 1 Participant characteristics according to foot ulceration status at follow-up

From: Risk factors for foot ulceration in adults with end-stage renal disease on dialysis: a prospective observational cohort study

 Total (N = 450)Foot ulceration
Yes (n = 81)No (n = 369)P-value*
Time to follow-up, mean (SD), days366 (8)366 (7)366 (9)0.48
Age, mean (SD), years68 (13)69 (10)67 (14)0.33
Male sex, n (%)291 (65)56 (69)235 (64)0.42
BMI, mean (SD), kg/m228.2 (6.6)29.9 (7.0)27.8 (6.4)0.01*
Current smoking, n (%)54 (12)9 (11)45 (12)0.93
Cause of ESRD
 Diabetes mellitus, n (%)180 (40)53 (65)127 (34)< 0.001*
 Hypertension, n (%)28 (6)4 (5)24 (7)0.78
 Glomerulonephritis, n (%)97 (22)11 (14)86 (23)0.08
 Polycystic kidney disease, n (%)22 (5)4 (5)18 (5)> 0.99
 Reflux, n (%)19 (4)1 (1)18 (5)0.24
 Renovascular disease, n (%)10 (2)3 (4)7 (2)0.56
 Vasculitis, n (%)9 (2)1 (1)8 (2)0.92
 Unknown, n (%)15 (3)0 (0)15 (4)0.13
 Other, n (%)70 (16)4 (5)66 (18)0.006*
Dialysis treatment
 Hemodialysis, n (%)423 (94)79 (98)344 (93)0.85
 Peritoneal dialysis    
  CAPD, n (%)9 (2)1 (1)8 (2)0.92
  APD, n (%)18 (4)1 (1)17 (5)> 0.99
Dialysis duration, median (IQR), months36.9 (16.6 to 70.1)41.3 (19.7 to 82.1)36.4 (14.7 to 67.4)0.28
Diabetes, n (%)226 (50)58 (72)168 (46)< 0.001*
 Type 1, n (%)13 (6)6 (7)7 (2)0.16
 Type 2, n (%)213 (94)52 (64)161 (44)0.16
Diabetes duration, mean (SD), months256.3 (152.6)311.7 (157.2)237.1 (146.6)0.002*
Known peripheral neuropathy, n (%)70 (16)31 (38)39 (11)< 0.001*
Known peripheral arterial disease, n (%)79 (18)36 (44)43 (12)< 0.001*
Hypertension, n (%)a360 (80)66 (82)294 (80)0.83
Dyslipidemia, n (%)301 (67)64 (79)237 (64)0.02*
Ischemic heart disease, n (%)263 (58)58 (72)205 (56)0.01*
Cerebrovascular disease, n (%)104 (23)31 (38)73 (20)0.001*
CRP, median (IQR), mg/Lb7.33 (2.83 to 19.67)10.33 (4.65 to 24.38)6.67 (2.67 to 18.75)0.03
Serum albumin, mean (SD), g/L33.7 (3.9)32.8 (4.9)33.9 (3.7)0.06
Total calcium, mean (SD), mmol/L2.20 (0.14)2.20 (0.15)2.20 (0.13)0.86
Serum phosphate, mean (SD), mmol/L1.55 (0.38)1.60 (0.44)1.54 (0.37)0.27
PTH, median (IQR), pmol/L29.58 (18.04 to 45.84)27.53 (21.17 to 45.97)29.83 (16.93 to 45.65)0.46
HbA1c, mean (SD), %b6.14 (1.31)6.65 (1.35)6.02 (1.28)< 0.001*
Hemoglobin, median (IQR), g/L111.3 (102.9 to 117.7)112.7 (102.8 to 120.2)111.0 (102.8 to 117.3)0.30
Previous foot ulceration, n (%)97 (22)45 (56)52 (14)< 0.001*
Baseline foot ulceration, n (%)45 (10)36 (44)9 (2)< 0.001*
Baseline amputation, n (%)46 (10)30 (37)16 (4)< 0.001*
  1. Data are n (%), unless otherwise specified. Percentages may not add up to 100%, as they are rounded to the nearest percent
  2. The complete dataset of participant characteristics can be found in Additional file 1
  3. SD Standard deviation, BMI Body mass index, ESRD End-stage renal disease, CAPD Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis, APD Automated peritoneal dialysis, IQR Interquartile range, CRP C-reactive protein, PTH Parathyroid hormone, HbA1c Glycated hemoglobin
  4. SI conversion factor: To convert CRP to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 9.524. To convert PTH to nanograms per liter, multiply by 9.4. To convert HbA1c to proportion of total hemoglobin, multiply by 0.01
  5. *Significant difference between ‘foot ulceration’ and ‘no foot ulceration’ groups, p < 0.05
  6. aRequiring medication
  7. bMaximum missing data were for glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) involving 39 participants overall (8.7%). Missing data were for glycated hemoglobin (n = 39) and C-reactive protein (n = 3)