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Table 3 Characteristics of foot ulcers and amputations

From: Risk factors for foot ulceration in adults with end-stage renal disease on dialysis: a prospective observational cohort study

 Foot ulceration Amputation
Total (n = 81)Left (n = 48)Right (n = 55)Total (n = 12)Left (n = 8)Right (n = 5)
Foot ulcers, total no. (%)211 (100)103 (49)108 (51)Amputations, total no. (%)20 (100)11 (55)9 (45)
 New, total no. (%)200 (95)97 (95)103 (95) Minor, total no. (%)a18 (90)11 (100)7 (78)
 Reoccurring, total no. (%)11 (5)6 (6)5 (2) Major, total no. (%)a2 (10)0 (0)2 (22)
Foot ulcers per participantAmputations per participant   
 Mean (SD), range2.6 (2.0), 1 to 112.0 (1.2), 1 to 51.9 (1.2), 1 to 6 Mean (SD), range1.7 (0.8), 1 to 30.9 (0.9), 0 to 30.8 (1.1), 0 to 3
 Median (IQR)2 (1 to 4)2 (1 to 3)1 (1 to 2) Median (IQR)1.5 (1 to 2)1.0 (0 to 1)0 (0 to 1.3)
Locationb   Location   
 Toes (dorsal, lateral or medial), total no. (%)124 (59)65 (63)59 (55) Single toe, total no. (%)10 (50)7 (64)3 (33)
 Plantar toes, forefoot, midfoot, total no. (%)41 (19)18 (18)23 (21) Multiple toes, total no. (%)4 (20)2 (18)2 (22)
 Dorsal foot, total no. (%)14 (7)7 (7)7 (7) Partial toe, total no. (%)1 (5)1 (9)0 (0)
 Heel, total no. (%)32 (15)13 (13)19 (18) Metatarsal + single toe, total no. (%)1 (5)0 (0)1 (11)
     Transmetatarsal, total no. (%)2 (10)1 (9)1 (11)
 Below knee amputation, total no. (%)2 (10)0 (0)2 (22)
TypeReason for amputation   
 Neuropathic, total no. (%)23 (11)16 (16)7 (7) Infected foot ulcer, total no. (%)8 (40)4 (36)4 (44)
 Neuro-ischemic, total no. (%)129 (61)61 (59)68 (63) PAD/gangrene, total no. (%)9 (45)5 (46)4 (44)
 Ischemic, total no. (%)10 (5)5 (5)5 (5) Osteomyelitis, total no. (%)3 (15)2 (18)1 (11)
 Pressure injury, total no. (%)32 (15)13 (13)19 (18)    
 Other/unknown, total no. (%)17 (8)8 (8)9 (8)    
Time to first foot ulcer, mean (SD), days164 (127)178 (124)182 (125)Time to first amputation, mean (SD), days202 (104)253 (90)130 (79)
  1. Data are total number of foot ulcers or amputations (%), unless otherwise specified. Percentages may not add up to 100%, as they are rounded to the nearest percent
  2. SD Standard deviation, IQR Interquartile range, PAD Peripheral arterial disease
  3. aAmputations were classified as ‘minor’ if below the ankle, or ‘major’ if above the ankle
  4. bMajority of foot ulcers 128/211 (60.7%) were located on the toes (dorsal, lateral, medial or plantar aspects)