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Table 5 Multinomial regression analysis of risk factors for foot ulceration

From: Risk factors for foot ulceration in adults with end-stage renal disease on dialysis: a prospective observational cohort study

Primary outcomeCategoryNRisk factorRR (95% CI)P-value*†
No development of foot ulceration(i) No previous or baseline ulceration, and did not develop ulceration during study period369Reference Category
Development of foot ulcerationa(ii) No previous or baseline ulceration, but developed ulceration during study period27Diabetes mellitus0.68 (0.28 to 1.63)0.39
 Neuropathy2.66 (1.04 to 6.82)0.04*
Peripheral arterial disease0.58 (0.24 to 1.41)0.23
Cerebrovascular disease1.37 (0.54 to 3.50)0.51
Nail pathology3.85 (1.08 to 13.75)0.04*
(iii) Previous and/or baseline ulceration, and developed ulceration during study period54Diabetes mellitus1.84 (0.75 to 4.48)0.18
Neuropathy11.23 (3.16 to 39.87)< 0.001†
Peripheral arterial disease7.15 (2.24 to 22.82)0.001†
Cerebrovascular disease2.08 (1.04 to 4.16)0.04*
Nail pathology1.02 (0.43 to 2.45)0.95
  1. Adjusted for age, sex, living alone, podiatry attendance and diabetes
  2. RR Relative risk, CI Confidence interval
  3. *Significant risk factor, p < 0.05
  4. †Significant risk factor, p < 0.01
  5. aIncludes new and reoccuring foot ulcers