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Table 1 Patient characteristics according to the presence or absence of AKI

From: Postoperative diastolic perfusion pressure is associated with the development of acute kidney injury in patients after cardiac surgery: a retrospective analysis

 Non-AKIAKIP-value
Total212 (70.7)88 (29.3)
Male (%)102 (48.1)71 (80.7)< 0.001
Age (years)52.9 ± 14.358.1 ± 12.10.002
BMI (kg/m2)22.9 ± 3.124.1 ± 3.70.090
Comorbidities
 CKD (%)10 (4.7)10 (11.4)0.036
 Hypertension (%)57 (26.9)34 (38.6)0.044
 Diabetes (%)17 (8.0)11 (12.5)0.224
 Cerebrovascular disease (%)11 (5.2)3 (3.4)0.506
 Atrial fibrillation (%)40 (18.9)17 (19.3)0.928
 Hyperlipidemia (%)6 (2.8)2 (2.3)0.785
Medication before admission
 Aspirin (%)31 (14.6)8 (9.1)0.195
 CCB (%)14 (6.6)10 (11.4)0.166
 ACEI (%)9 (4.2)1 (1.1)0.172
 ARB (%)11 (3.7)4 (1.3)0.816
 Diuretics (%)6 (2.0)5 (1.7)0.231
 β-blocker (%)15 (7.1)6 (6.8)0.937
 Statins (%)13 (6.1)1 (1.1)0.062
Preoperative contrast exposure(%)118 (55.7)51 (58.0)0.715
Intervals between contrast exposure and surgery (days)3.52 ± 2.733.34 ± 2.580.683
Baseline kidney function
 eGFR (MDRD)89.1 ± 17.685.7 ± 19.10.146
 Serum creatinine (μmol/L)76.7 ± 19.685.2 ± 27.00.003
 LVEF62.7 ± 6.960.0 ± 8.80.006
 NYHA III-IV (%)135 (63.7)57 (64.8)0.857
 Baseline hemoglobin (g/L)130.2 ± 17.2133.2 ± 15.70.166
 APACHE III12.6 ± 3.413.0 ± 4.00.464
 EuroSCORE II1.20 ± 0.711.35 ± 0.890.161
Surgery type
 CABG (%)36 (17.1)10 (11.4)0.142
 Single valve surgery (%)75 (35.5)34 (38.6)0.455
 Combined valve surgery (%)49 (23.3)22 (25.0)0.858
 CABG + valve surgery (%)4 (1.9)3 (3.4)0.419
 Aortic root surgery (%)47 (22.3)20 (22.7)0.941
Intraoperative fluid balance
 Estimated blood loss (ml)414 ± 313462 ± 3930.358
 Ultrafiltration (ml)2295 ± 7942525 ± 8000.092
 Erythrocytes transfusion (ml)420 ± 215470 ± 2890.144
 FFP transfusion (ml)386 ± 133531 ± 2220.005
Surgery variables
 CPB duration (min)90.1 ± 31.8108.4 ± 37.1< 0.001
 Cross-clamp duration (min)55.8 ± 24.966.7 ± 25.60.004
Dose of vasopressor or inotropes
 Norepinephrine (mg)6.2 ± 5.710.2 ± 13.80.003
 Epinephrine (mg)0.4 ± 1.31.2 ± 2.60.021
 Dopamine (mg)80.6 ± 112.186.6 ± 97.20.721
 Dobutamine (mg)54.7 ± 72.066.1 ± 82.20.322
 Fluid balance at POD24h (ml)− 290 ± 1475− 256 ± 17520.876
 Fluid infusion (ml)3804 ± 8503841 ± 8440.754
 Fluid output (ml)4157 ± 15204325 ± 15140.474
 Urine output (ml)2099 ± 7211789 ± 7340.002
Outcomes
 CRRT (%)0 (0.0)5 (5.7)0.037
 LOS in ICU (hours)34.8 ± 29.347.7 ± 30.80.001
 LOS in hospital (days)11.0 ± 2.812.1 ± 4.10.027
 In-hospital mortality (%)3 (1.4)5 (5.7)0.037
  1. The data in the table are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or number (%). Continuous variables were compared using the T test, whereas categorical variables were compared using chi-squared test