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Table 1 Covariable information for non-missing data, by exposure (RAAS blockers / diuretics) and outcome (acute kidney injury)

From: Estimating the risk of acute kidney injury associated with use of diuretics and renin angiotensin aldosterone system inhibitors: A population based cohort study using the clinical practice research datalink

 Exposed (n = 70,476)Unexposed (n = 70,476)
AKICount%  Missing (%)Count%  Missing (%)
AKI5860.8  0.03480.5  0.0
No AKI69,89099.2  0.070,12899.5  0.0
GenderMale (%)Female (%)  Missing (%)Male (%)Female (%)  Missing (%)
AKI358 (61.1)228 (38.9)  0.0202 (58.1)146 (42.0)  0.0
No AKI38,007 (54.4)31,883 (45.6)  0.038,163 (54.4)31,965 (45.6)  0.0
Age at Exposure< 65 (%)65–74 (%)> = 75 (%) Missing (%)< 65 (%)65–74 (%)> = 75 (%) Missing (%)
AKI229 (39.1)179 (30.6)178 (30.4) 0.0137 (39.4)108 (31.0)103 (29.6) 0.0
No AKI37,096 (53.1)19,409 (27.8)13,385 (19.2) 0.036,589 (52.2)20,331 (29.0)13,208 (18.8) 0.0
Diagnosis to Exposure<  30 days (%)30–179 (%)180–364 (%)> = 365 (%)Missing (%)<  30 days
(%)
30–179 (%)180–364 (%)> = 365 (%)Missing (%)
AKI191 (32.6)83 (14.2)42 (7.2)270 (46.1)0.039 (11.3)115 (33.2)35 (10.1)157 (45.4)0.0
No AKI26,347 (37.7)8880 (12.7)4015 (5.7)30,648 (43.9)0.07203 (10.3)25,894 (36.9)5736 (8.2)31,297 (44.6)0.0
# Medications1 (%)> = 2 (%)  Missing (%)1 (%)> = 2 (%)  Missing (%)
AKI256 (43.7)330 (56.3)  0.0297 (85.8)49 (14.2)  0.0
No AKI34,803 (49.8)35,087 (50.2)  0.060,292 (86.0)9838 (14.0)  0.0
# GP Consultation< 10 (%)10–19 (%)20–29 (%)> = 30 (%)Missing (%)< 10 (%)10–19 (%)20–29 (%)> = 30 (%)Missing (%)
AKI142 (24.2)192 (32.8)126 (21.5)126 (21.5)0.072 (20.7)123 (35.3)74 (21.3)79 (22.7)0.0
No AKI20,781 (29.7)24,887 (35.6)12,814 (18.3)11,408 (16.3)0.018,615 (26.5)26,116 (37.2)13,457 (19.2)11,940 (17.0)0.0
Systolic Blood Pressure<  120 (%)120–139 (%)140–159 (%)> = 160 (%)Missing (%)<  120 (%)120–139 (%)140–159 (%)> = 160 (%)Missing (%)
AKI30 (5.5)139 (25.4)226 (41.2)153 (27.9)6.525 (7.3)131 (38.3)150 (43.9)36 (10.5)1.7
No AKI2089 (3.2)13,458 (20.8)30,641 (47.3)18,637 (28.8)7.25202 (7.7)24,012 (35.6)28,854 (42.7)9479 (14.0)3.7
SmokingYes (%)No (%)Ex (%) Missing (%)Yes (%)No (%)Ex (%) Missing (%)
AKI115 (19.8)247 (42.5)219 (37.7)  71 (20.4)156 (44.8)121 (34.8) 0.0
No AKI12,260 (17.6)34,823 (50.1)22,487 (32.3)  12,104 (17.3)35,521 (50.8)22,364 (32.0) 0.2
GFR> = 60 (%)45–59 (%)<  45 (%) Missing (%)> = 60 (%)45–59 (%)<  45 (%) Missing (%)
AKI398 (77.7)81 (15.8)33 (6.5)  239 (76.1)55 (17.5)20 (6.4) 9.8
No AKI42,103 (85.8)5883 (12.0)1070 (2.2)  38,014 (84.9)6090 (13.6)678 (1.5) 36.1
# Chronic Conditions1 (%)> = 2 (%)  Missing (%)1 (%)> = 2 (%)  Missing (%)
AKI417 (71.2)169 (28.8)   285 (82.4)61 (17.6)  0.0
No AKI56,163 (80.4)13,727 (19.6)   61,945 (88.3)8185 (11.7)  0.0
  1. 1 Percentages exclude missing values, except for the “Missing” column which shows the percentage of patients with missing data