Skip to main content


Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Barriers and enablers to detection and management of chronic kidney disease in primary healthcare: a systematic review

CitationContextData collection methodCountryParticipant characteristicsSample size
Armstrong et al., 2016 [22]Observations, interviews and documentary analysis of the ENABLE-CKD project, which aimed to close the gap between guidelines and practiceInterviewsUnited KingdomPrimary care staff across general practices (general practitioners, nurses, practice managers, pharmacist, self-management facilitator, administrator/ support staff)24 (general practitioners: n = 7, nurses: n = 9, practice managers: m = 4, pharmacist: n = 1)
Blakeman et al. 2012 [7]Exploration of CKD management in primary care, within practices participating in renal collaborative projectInterviewsUnited KingdomGeneral practitioners and nurses21 (general practitioners: n = 11, nurses: n = 10)
Crinson et al. 2010 [32]Exploration of primary care practitioners views of CKD and its managementFocus groupsUnited KingdomGeneral practitioners and practice nurses36 (n = 26 general practitioners, n = 9 practice nurses, n = 1 practice-based pharmacist)
Danforth et al. 2019 [29]Identification of risk factors, facilitators, and barriers to follow-up of abnormal eGFR results for diagnosing CKDInterviewsUnited States of AmericaPrimary care physicians15
Gheewala et al. 2018 [30]Exploration of community pharmacists barriers to implementing a CKD risk assessment serviceInterviewsAustraliaCommunity pharmacists8
Greer et al. 2012 [33]Exploration of primary care providers’ barriers to educating patients about CKDFocus groupsUnited States of AmericaPrimary care providers (physicians and nurse practitioners)18 (n = 15 physicians, n = 3 nurse practitioners)
Greer et al. 2015 [23]Exploration of barriers to preparing patients for renal replacement therapyInterviewsUnited States of AmericaPrimary care physicians4a
Greer et al. 2019 [8], Sperati et al. 2019 [34]Exploration of primary care physicians’ perceived barriers and facilitators to management of CKD in a) primary care, and b) at the primary care-nephrology interfaceFocus groupsUnited States of AmericaPrimary care physicians32
Litvin et al. 2016 [24]Exploration of whether clinical decision support could be used to improve identification and management of CKDGroup interviewsUnited States of AmericaMedical doctors, licensed practical nurse, nurse practitioner, registered nurse, medical assistant, physician assistant11 practices (ranging in size from 1 to 8 providers)
Lo et al. 2016 [5] and Lo et al. 2016 [36]Exploration of factors influencing health care of diabetes and CKDFocus groupsAustraliaGeneral practitioners22a
McBride et al. 2014 [25]Exploration of primary care providers’ attitudes regarding a CKD registry and its implementationInterviewsUnited States of AmericaPrimary care providers (physicians, nurse practitioners)20 (n = 19 physicians, n = 1 nurse practitioner)
Nash et al. 2018 [31]Exploration of primary care providers’ perceptions of barriers and enablers to following guidelines for requesting creatinine tests to confirm CKDInterviewsCanadaPrimary care providers (physicians and nurse practitioners)13 (n = 9 physicians, n = 4 nurse practitioners)
Nihat et al. 2016 [6]Process evaluation of the Quality Improvement in CKD study, which compared audit-based education and sending clinical guidelines and prompts with usual careFocus groupsUnited KingdomGeneral practice (including general practitioner, practice nurses, healthcare assistants and practice manager)4 practices (including 6–9 members of the multi-professional team in each group)
Sinclair et al. 2017 [9]Identification of barriers and facilitators to CKD screening practices in practice nursesCross-sectional survey (open-ended questions)AustraliaPractice nurses26
Smith et al. 2012 [26]Analysis following change to automatic reporting of eGFR in all laboratory results (previously only serum creatinine reported)InterviewsUnited States of AmericaPrimary care providers (physicians, nurse practitioners, physician assistants)19 (n = 13 physicians, n = 2 nurse practitioners, n = 4 physician assistants
Tam-Tham et al. 2016 [27]Description of primary care physicians perceptions of key barriers, facilitators, and strategies to enhance conservative care for community-dwelling older adults with Stage 5InterviewsCanadaPrimary care physicians27
Tam-Tham et al. 2016 [37]Examination of perceived barriers, facilitators to improve primary care physicians’ ability to conservatively manage older adults with Stage 5 who were not planning to initiate dialysisCross-sectional surveybCanadaPrimary care physicians409
Tonkin-Crine et al. 2015 [10]Exploration of general practitioners views and experiences of managing patients with advanced CKD and referral to secondary careInterviewsUnited KingdomGeneral practitioners19
van Dipten et al. 2018 [35]Exploration of perspectives of general practitioners familiar with CKD management guidelines, including the applicability of national interdisciplinary guidelinesFocus groupsThe NetherlandsGeneral practitioners27
Vest et al. 2015 [28]Process evaluation of TRANSLATE-CKD study, a randomised controlled trial examining implementation of evidence-based CKD guidelines in primary care practice. Interviews conducted at baseline to assess current practiceInterviewsUnited States of AmericaPrimary care clinicians27 (n = 24 doctors, n = 3 nurse practitioners/physician assistants) interviewed
  1. aPlus additional secondary or tertiary care practitioners who were not included in the present review
  2. bOpen-ended responses only included in this review