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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: Effects of exercise training on proteinuria in adult patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

StudyStudy designSimple size, nPatientsAge, yearsBMI, Kg/m2Comorbidities/EtitologyMeds use: RAASOutcomesMeasuring time point
Hellberg [26] Sweden (2019)RCTE1: 73E1: CKD4–5E1: 67 ± 14E1: 28 ± 6E1: DM/HypertensionE: YESU-ACR (mg/mmol)0, 4, 8 mo
E2: 75E2: CKD4–5E2: 65 ± 14E2: 27 ± 5E2: DM/HypertensionC: YES
Liang [27] China (2016)RCTE1: 29E1: CKD2–3E1: 48.21 ± 3.62E1: 23.28 ± 2.49E1: HypertensionE1: YES24 h UP (g/24 h)0, 12 w
E2: 29E2: CKD2–3E2: 48.50 ± 3.51E2: 23.3 ± 2.53E2: HypertensionE2: YES
C: 29C: CKD2–3C: 48.00 ± 3.62C: 23.25 ± 2.52C: HypertensionC: YES
Aoike [28] Brizal (2017)RCTE1:12E1: CKD3–4E1: 56.0 ± 8.3E1: 31.1 ± 4.6E1: DM/HypertensionE1: YESUrinary protein (g/24 h)0, 12, 24 w
E2:13E2: CKD3–4E2: 56.3 ± 7.9E2: 31.8 ± 4.5E2: DM/HypertensionE2: YES
C:15C: CKD3–4C: 54.3 ± 8.7C: 30.7 ± 4.1C: DM/HypertensionC: YES
Leehey [29] The USA (2009)Pilot RCTE:7E: CKD2–4E: NGE: NGE: DME: YESUPCR (mg/g). UACR (mg/g)0, 6, 24 w
C: 4C: CKD2–4C: NGC: NGC: DMC: YESUrine protein excretion (mg/24 h)
Hiraki [30] Japan (2017)RCTE: 14E: CKD3–4E: 69.0 ± 6.8E: 24.4 ± 3.5E: DME: NGUrinary protein (g/gCr)0, 12 mo
C: 14C: CKD3–4C: 67.8 ± 6.9C: 23 ± 2.5C: DMC: NG
Leehey [31] The USA (2016)RCTE: 14E: CKD2–4E: 65.4 ± 8.7E: 36.2 ± 4.8E: DM2/HypertensionE: YESUPCR (mg/g)0, 3, 13 mo
C: 18C: CKD2–4C: 66.6 ± 7.5C: 37.4 ± 4.2C: DM2/HypertensionC: YESUACR (mg/g)
Pechter [32] Estonia (2003)Quasi-experimental studyE: 17E: moderate CKDE: 52 (31–72) *E: 29.4 ± 1.3E: HypertensionE: NGUrinary proteinuria excretion (U-Pro, g/24 h)0, 12 mo
C: 9C: moderate CKDC: 48 (35–65) *C: 28.1 ± 1.3C: HypertensionC: NG
Viana [33] England (2014)Quasi-experimental studyE: 13E: CKD4–5E: 61 ± 8E: 26.6 ± 4.7E: NGE: YESUPCR (mg/mmol)0, 6 mo
C: 11C: CKD4–5C: 56 ± 16C: 29 ± 5.9C: NGC: YES
Nylen [34] The USA (2015)Quasi-experimental studyE1: 38E1: CKD1–3E1: 62 ± 2.1E1: NGE1: DM2,E1: NGurinary albuminuria (UAE, mg/g creatinine).0, 12 mo
E2: 53E2: CKD2E:2: 62.5 ± 7.4E2: NGE2: DM2E2: NG
E3: 37E3: CKD3E3: 63.8 ± 7.2E3: NGE3: DM2E3: NG
Hamada [35] Japan (2016)A single-armed intervention studyE: 47E: CKD1–5E: 68.8 ± 11.8E: 25.3 ± 3.8E: DME: YESPoint of proteinuria: UPCR (g/gCr)0, 6 mo
Zhang [36] China (2018)Quasi-experimental studyE: 25E: CKD2–3E: 36.36 ± 10.12E: NGE: NG,E: YESUrinary proteinuria excretion (U-pro, mg/24 h)0, 3, 6 mo
C: 27C: CKD2–3C: 35.89 ± 9.64C: NGC: NGC: YES
  1. Notes. E: Experimental group; C: Control group; RCT: Randomized controlled studies; CKD: Chronic kidney disease; BMI: Body mass index; NG: Not given; Med use: Medication use; RAAS: Renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system drugs; DM: Diabetes mellitus; DM2: Type II diabetes; UACR: Urinary albumin-to-creatinine ratio; 24 h UP: 24-h urinary protein; UPCR: Urinary protein-to-creatinine ratio; mo: month; w: week; *: median and range