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Table 3 Quality evaluation of quasi-experimental studies

From: Effects of exercise training on proteinuria in adult patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis

 Quasi-experimental studies 
ItemsPechter [32] (2003)Viana [33] (2014)Nylen [34] (2015)Hamada [35] (2016)Zhang [36] (2018)
2YesYesNot applicableNot applicableYes
4YesYesYesNot applicableYes
  1. Notes. 1 Is it clear in the study what is the ‘cause’ and what is the ‘effect’ (i.e. there is no confusion about which variable comes first)? 2 Were the participants included in any comparisons similar? 3 Were the participants included in any comparisons receiving similar treatment/care, other than the exposure or intervention of interest? 4 Was there a control group? 5 Were there multiple measurements of the outcome both pre and post the intervention/exposure? 6 Was follow up complete and if not, were differences between groups in terms of their follow up adequately described and analysed? 7 Were the outcomes of participants included in any comparisons measured in the same way? 8 Were outcomes measured in a reliable way? 9 Was appropriate statistical analysis used?