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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and clinical parameters of enrolled patients according to gait speed and handgrip strength

From: Gait speed and handgrip strength as predictors of all-cause mortality and cardiovascular events in hemodialysis patients

 Normal GS and HS
(n = 119)
Normal GS and low HS
(n = 80)
Low GS and normal HS
(n = 34)
Low GS and HS
(n = 44)
p value
Age (year)58.6 ± 14.361.5 ± 11.163.7 ± 10.368.6 ± 12.0< 0.001c,e
Sex (male, %)75 (63.0)61 (76.2)19 (55.9)28 (63.6)0.118
BMI (kg/m2)23.2 ± 4.222.5 ± 3.324.5 ± 4.522.1 ± 3.20.024e
Time on dialysis (year)2.8 [0.8, 5.9]3.3 [0.8, 7.8]1.1 [0.3, 2.6]1.4 [0.3, 4.8]0.005e
Previous cardiovascular events (n, %)26 (21.8)28 (35.0)11 (32.4)19 (43.2)0.039a,c
Diabetes mellitus (n, %)55 (46.2)44 (55.0)23 (67.6)31 (70.5)0.017b,c
Pre-HD SBP (mmHg)141 ± 20142 ± 25143 ± 19140 ± 210.949
Access type (n, %)
 Arteriovenous fistula101 (84.9)61 (76.2)24 (70.6)36 (81.8)0.343
 Arteriovenous graft15 (12.6)16 (20.0)10 (29..4)6 (13.6) 
 Catheter3 (2.5)3 (3.8)0 (0)2 (4.5) 
Single-pool Kt/V1.54 ± 0.291.59 ± 0.261.57 ± 0.291.68 ± 0.270.039c
Hemoglobin (g/dL)10.6 ± 1.310.4 ± 1.310.6 ± 1.210.2 ± 1.30.417
Albumin (g/dL)3.9 ± 0.33.9 ± 0.33.8 ± 0.43.7 ± 0.30.002c,e
Pre-HD BUN (mg/dL)62.8 ± 17.858.4 ± 13.955.9 ± 17.754.5 ± 23.10.027c
Pre-HD creatinine (mg/dL)9.7 ± 3.19.4 ± 2.28.1 ± 2.87.5 ± 2.6< 0.001b,c,e
Ca (mg/dL)8.5 ± 0.88.7 ± 0.88.3 ± 0.78.7 ± 0.90.037d
P (mg/dL)5.0 ± 1.44.7 ± 1.24.7 ± 1.44.4 ± 1.60.153
Intact PTH (pg/mL)190 [128, 302]221 [119, 303]185 [104, 370]106 [58, 234]0.060
Total CO2 (mEq/L)22.5 ± 3.023.3 ± 3.122.6 ± 2.923.3 ± 2.90.246
β2-microglobulin (mg/L)25.2 ± 8.624.4 ± 7.421.4 ± 7.325.1 ± 9.30.142
Total cholesterol (mg/dL)143 ± 29132 ± 28145 ± 32141 ± 310.019e
LDL cholesterol (mg/dL)78 ± 2473 ± 2575 ± 2685 ± 280.095
HDL cholesterol (mg/dL)45 ± 1545 ± 1245 ± 1645 ± 131.000
Gait speed* (m/s)1.14 ± 0.241.09 ± 0.180.66 ± 0.130.62 ± 0.13< 0.001b,c,d,e
Handgrip strength* (kg)
 Male31.9 ± 9.219.4 ± 4.226.3 ± 13.618.9 ± 4.9< 0.001a,b,c,d,f
 Female21.4 ± 9.614.2 ± 2.118.4 ± 6.113.7 ± 2.2< 0.001a,c
MAMC (cm)23.3 ± 3.422.5 ± 4.422.3 ± 2.521.6 ± 3.50.074
Anti-hypertensive medication (n, %)
 Renin-angiotensin system blocker67 (56.3)42 (52.5)23 (67.6)25 (56.8)0.524
 Calcium channel blocker74 (62.2)44 (55.0)21 (61.8)30 (68.2)0523
 β-blocker46 (38.7)30 (37.5)19 (55.9)20 (45.5)0.250
HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor51 (42.9)31 (38.8)21 (61.8)27 (61.4)0.022c,d,e
  1. Abbreviations: GS Gait speed; HS Handgrip strength; BMI Body mass index; HD Hemodialysis; CV Cardiovascular; SBP Systolic blood pressure; BUN Blood urea nitrogen; PTH Parathyroid hormone; LDL Low-density lipoprotein; HDL High-density lipoprotein; MAMC Mid-arm muscle circumference
  2. *Low GS was defined as a gait speed of less than 0.8 m/s, and low HS was defined as < 26 kg for men and < 18 kg for women
  3. MAMC was calculated by the following: MAMC = Midarm Circumference - (3.14163 Χ Triceps Skinfold Thickness / 10)
  4. ap < 0.05, Normal GS and HS vs. Normal GS and low HS; bp < 0.05, Normal GS and HS vs. Low GS and normal HS; cp < 0.05, Normal GS and HS vs. Low GS and HS; dp < 0.05, Normal GS and low HS vs. Low GS and normal HS; ep < 0.05, Normal GS and low HS vs. Low GS and HS
  5. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or the number of patients (percentage). Time on dialysis and intact PTH levels were non-normally distributed and therefore described as median [first and third interquartile rage]