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Table 3 Medications with potentially inappropriate prescribing

From: Quality use of medicines in patients with chronic kidney disease

Medications with potentially inappropriate dosePatients prescribed N (%)Patients with inappropriately high dose drug
N (%)
Medications potentially contraindicatedPatients prescribed N (%)Patients with potentially contraindicated medication N (%)
Antidiabetic MedicationsAntidiabetic Medications
Vildagliptin355 (1.2)274 (77.2)Dapagliflozin296 (1.0)245 (82.8)
Saxagliptin205 (0.7)117 (57.1)Acarbose81 (0.3)12 (14.8)
Sitagliptin1534 (5.3)742 (48.4)Exenatide313 (1.1)18 (5.8)
Metformin8046 (28.0)2885 (35.9)Metformin8046 (28.0)37 (0.5)
Alogliptin17 (0.1)5 (29.4)Anticoagulant Medications
Lipid Lowering MedicationsRivaroxaban1230 (4.3)99 (8.0)
Fenofibrate1939 (6.7)1346 (69.4)Dabigatran492 (1.7)34 (6.9)
Rosuvastatin8529 (29.7)525 (6.2)Apixaban938 (3.3)40 (4.3)
Antihypertensive MedicationsCardiovascular Medications
Atenolol4832 (16.8)1849 (38.3)Moxonidine1675 (5.8)447 (26.7)
Moxonidine1675 (5.8)43 (2.6)Spironolactone3050 (10.6)665 (21.8)
AntiarrhythmicsBisphosphonates
Digoxin2567 (8.9)24 (0.9)Alendronate791 (2.8)251 (31.7)
Anticoagulant MedicationsRisedronate619 (2.2)118 (19.1)
Rivaroxaban1230 (4.3)237 (19.3)Others
Dabigatran492 (1.7)39 (7.9)Teriparatide7 (0.0)2 (28.6)
BisphosphonatesStrontium205 (0.7)43 (21.0)
Clodronate10 (0.03)5 (50)Dextropropoxyphene105 (0.4)33 (31.4)
Zoledronate24 (0.1)1 (4.2)Pramipexole523 (1.8)100 (19.1)
AntihistaminesProbenecid115 (0.4)1 (0.9)
Nizatidine283 (1.0)170 (60.1)   
Cimetidine15 (0.1)3 (20.0)   
Cetirizine261 (0.9)50 (19.2)   
Psychotropic Medications   
Paliperidone6 (0.02)4 (66.7)   
Desvenlafaxine572 (2.0)70 (12.2)   
Duloxetine846 (2.9)87 (10.3)   
Venlafaxine1050 (3.7)47 (4.5)   
Varenicline150 (0.5)6 (4.0)   
Neurological Medications   
Tramadol571 (2)67 (11.7)   
Gabapentin341 (1.2)30 (8.8)   
Levetiracetam179 (0.6)9 (5)   
Pregabalin4642 (16.2)190 (4.1)   
Pramipexole523 (1.8)3 (0.6)   
Others   
Tolterodine20 (0.1)2 (10.0)   
Solifenacin458 (1.6)21 (4.6)   
  1. Codeine, Glibenclamide and Glimepiride were prescribed inappropriately in all patients and is not presented in the table; Combination medications were assessed for PIP separately