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Table 2 Clinical characteristics of patients according to the development of cancer after renal biopsy

From: Cancer development and mortality differences in patients with glomerulonephritis after renal biopsy: a single center retrospective cohort study

 Cancer (−)Cancer (+)P-value
Number77745
Age (year)48.0 ± 15.957.1 ± 13.8< 0.001
Gender (male, %)376 (48.4)25 (55.6)0.44
Smoking history (n,%)174 (24.4)10 (23.3)1.00
History of cerebrovascular disease (n, %)60 (7.7)4 (8.9)1.00
History of coronary heart disease (n, %)48 (6.2)6 (13.3)0.12
Diabetes (n, %)118 (15.5)11 (25.6)0.12
Hypertension (n, %)481 (61.9)27 (60.0)0.92
Chronic hepatitis B29 (3.7)3 (6.7)0.55
Chronic hepatitis C3 (0.4)0 (0)1.00
Liver cirrhosis (any cause)16 (2.1)1 (2.2)1.00
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)128.3 ± 18.7132.7 ± 23.90.24
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)73.9 ± 11.973.1 ± 12.60.65
Protein (g/dl)6.1 ± 1.16.2 ± 1.20.71
Albumin (g/dl)3.4 ± 0.83.3 ± 0.70.25
Bilirubin (mg/dl)0.5 ± 0.40.5 ± 0.20.93
Cholesterol (mg/dl)217.1 ± 89.3213.2 ± 74.20.79
Glucose (mg/dl)118.6 ± 46.7106.5 ± 30.50.02
Hemoglobin (g/dl)12.7 ± 2.211.8 ± 2.3< 0.001
Creatinine (mg/dl)1.3 ± 1.32.0 ± 2.70.09
Glomerular filtration rate (ml/min/1.73 m2)80.1 ± 35.270.3 ± 36.30.07
Urine protein to creatinine ratio (g/g cr)2.9 ± 3.74.0 ± 4.40.07
Albumin by dipstick ≥2+ (n, %)565 (76.0)33 (75.0)1.00
Pathologic diagnosis  0.05
   Non-specific GN27 (3.5)1 (2.2) 
   Amyloidosis2 (0.3)1 (2.2) 
   Crescentic GN17 (2.2)2 (4.4) 
   Diabetic nephropathy47 (6.0)4 (8.9) 
   FSGS77 (9.9)5 (11.1) 
   IgA nephropathya354 (45.6)12 (26.7) 
   Lupus nephritis22 (2.8)3 (6.7) 
   MCD68 (8.8)1 (2.2) 
   MNa100 (12.9)11 (24.4) 
   Immune complex type of MPGN30 (3.9)2 (4.4) 
   TIN28 (3.6)3 (6.7) 
   TMA5 (0.3)0 (0.0) 
Follow up duration until the detection of cancer (months)58.6 ± 44.663.4 ± 42.10.48
Usage of immunosuppressive medication until the detection of cancer
 Any kind of immunosuppressant (n, %)334 (43.0)28 (62.2)0.02
 Azathioprine (n, %)35 (4.5)4 (8.9)0.33
 Cyclophosphamide (n, %)106 (13.6)12 (26.7)0.03
 Mycophenolate (n, %)49 (6.3)4 (8.9)0.71
 Rituximab (n, %)11 (1.4)0 (0.0)0.89
 Prednisolone (n, %)330 (42.5)26 (57.8)0.06
 Tacrolimus (n, %)79 (10.2)3 (6.7)0.61
 Cyclosporine (n, %)58 (7.5)2 (4.4)0.64
Total dose of immunosuppressive medication until detection of cancer
 Azathioprine (g)1.71 ± 15.903.71 ± 16.090.41
 Cyclophosphamide (g)1.49 ± 5.565.35 ± 14.830.09
 Mycophenolate (g)63.65 ± 34.0650.89 ± 27.940.81
 Rituximab (g)0.03 ± 0.300.0 ± 0.00.01
 Prednisolone (g)4.86 ± 10.786.95 ± 11.310.21
 Tacrolimus (g)0.20 ± 1.100.05 ± 0.270.01
 Cyclosporine (g)8.36 ± 50.041.11 ± 6.32< 0.001
  1. GN Glomerulonephritis; FSGS Focal segmental glomerulonephritis; IgAN IgA nephropathy; MCD Minimal change disease; MN Membranous nephropathy; MPGN Membranoproliferative glomerulonephritis; TIN Tubulointerstitial nephropathy; TMA Thrombotic microangiopathy
  2. a Statistically significant when the incidence of cancer was compared between patients with a certain pathologic finding and the others