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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients with early and delayed lupus nephritis

From: Comparison of clinical features and outcomes between patients with early and delayed lupus nephritis

Variables Total (n = 171) Patients with early lupus nephritis (n = 106) Patients with delayed lupus nephritis (n = 65) p-value
Demographic data
 Age, years 36.0 (26.3–46.0) 36.0 (25.0–48.0) 36.0 (29.0–44.0) 0.903
 Female sex, n (%) 153 (89.5) 91 (85.8) 62 (95.4) 0.070
 Disease duration, months n/a n/a 52.6 (22.0–118.8) < 0.001
 Follow-up duration, months 57.1 (17.5–90.8) 40.9 (14.2–91.3) 67.6 (27.0–88.9) 0.119
SLE specific variables
 Non-renal SLEDAI-2 K 5.0 (4.0–7.0) 6.0 (5.0–8.0) 4.0 (4.0–6.0) < 0.001
 Complement 3, mg/dL 42.7 (28.7–66.4) 40.3 (26.2–67.3) 46.4 (34.9–64.5) 0.129
 Low complement 3, n (%) 154 (90.1) 95 (89.6) 59 (90.8) 0.808
 Complement 4, mg/dL 5.6 (3.0–12.5) 5.3 (3.0–12.5) 6.2 (3.5–12.3) 0.623
 Low complement 4, n (%) 114 (66.7) 73 (68.9) 41 (63.1) 0.437
 Anti-dsDNA (IU/mL) 218.4 (32.3–379.0) 160.0 (10.0–379.0) 300.0 (143.3–379.0) 0.009
 Elevated anti-dsDNA, n (%) 141 (82.5) 83 (78.3) 58 (89.2) 0.069
 Spot urine P/Cr ratio 2.9 (1.5–6.0) 3.4 (1.5–6.5) 2.3 (1.5–4.2) 0.123
Laboratory data
 WBC count (/μL) 4400.0 (3147.5–6145.0) 3925.0 (3030.5630.0) 4950.0 (3947.5–6727.5) 0.018
 Platelet count (× 1000/μL) 203.0 (136.3–247.8) 200.0 (113.0–240.0) 213.0 (152.8–253.3) 0.126
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 10.4 (9.1–11.7) 10.2 (8.9–11.5) 10.9 (9.5–11.9) 0.189
 Lymphocyte count (/μL) 860.0 (580.0–1227.5) 840.0 (550.0–1250.0) 900.0 (610.-1222.5) 0.999
 ESR (mm/hr) 53.0 (28.5–76.0) 57.0 (35.0–84.0) 41.0 (24.8–68.8) 0.013
 CRP (mg/L) 2.5 (1.0–8.9) 3.0 (1.0–9.6) 1.9 (1.0–4.9) 0.074
 Cr (mg/dL) 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 0.8 (0.6–1.1) 0.8 (0.6–1.0) 0.434
 Albumin (g/dL) 2.9 (2.2–3.4) 2.6 (2.1–3.3) 3.2 (2.6–3.4) 0.002
Clinical manifestations
 Skin rash 53 (31.0) 41 (38.7) 12 (18.5) 0.006
 Photosensitivity 13 (7.6) 10 (9.4) 3 (4.6) 0.374
 Oral ulcer 21 (12.3) 19 (17.9) 2 (3.1) 0.004
 Arthritis 10 (5.8) 8 (7.5) 2 (3.1) 0.322
 Serositis 41 (24.0) 35 (33.0) 6 (9.2) < 0.001
 Neurologic disorder 2 (1.2) 1 (0.9) 1 (1.5) 0.726
 Hematologic disorder 152 (88.9) 95 (89.6) 57 (87.7) 0.698
 Immunologic disorder 159 (93.0) 100 (94.3) 59 (90.8) 0.376
Comorbidities
 Hypertension 33 (19.3) 11 (10.4) 22 (33.8) < 0.001
 Diabetes mellitus 4 (2.3) 3 (2.8) 1 (1.5) 0.999
 Dyslipidemia 2 (1.2) 2 (1.9) 0 (0.0) 0.526
  1. Values are expressed as median (interquartile range) or n (%)
  2. n/a not applicable, SLEDAI-2 K systemic lupus erythematosus disease activity index-2000, P/Cr protein/creatinine, WBC white blood cell, ESR erythrocyte sedimentation rate, CRP C-reactive protein, Cr creatinine