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Table 3 Multiple-linear regression for the associations between vegetarian dietary patterns and renal function parametersa

From: Healthy adult vegetarians have better renal function than matched omnivores: a cross-sectional study in China

  Omnivores Vegetarians
Total vegetariansb Lacto-ovo vegetarians Vegans
β(95% CIs) β(95% CIs) β(95% CIs)
BUN
 Model 1 0 (Ref) −0.71 (− 0.88, − 0.53) −0.76 (− 0.95, − 0.57) −0.56 (− 0.84, − 0.27)
 Model 2   − 0.68 (− 0.85, − 0.51) − 0.71 (− 0.90, − 0.52) − 0.58 (− 0.87, − 0.30)
 Model 3   −0.72 (− 0.96, − 0.49) −0.71 (− 0.96, − 0.46) −0.74 (−1.13, − 0.36)
 Model 4   − 0.63 (− 0.88, − 0.38) −0.59 (− 0.86, − 0.32) −0.64 (− 1.05, − 0.22)
 Model 5   − 0.66 (− 0.95, − 0.38) −0.66 (− 0.98, − 0.35) −0.52 (− 1.04, 0.00)
SCr
 Model 1 0 (Ref) −1.91 (− 3.72, − 0.10) − 2.08 (− 4.03, − 0.12) −1.43 (− 4.43, 1.57)
 Model 2   − 2.04 (− 3.51, − 0.57) −1.61 (− 3.12, − 0.10) − 3.70 (− 6.08, − 1.32)
 Model 3   −2.95 (− 4.85, − 1.05) −2.46 (− 4.38, − 0.55) − 5.41 (− 8.70, − 2.11)
 Model 4   −2.04 (−4.10, 0.02) − 1.58 (− 3.65, 0.48) − 3.17 (− 6.24, − 0.09)
 Model 5   −2.47 (− 4.83, − 0.11) −2.41 (− 4.81, − 0.01) −3.67 (− 8.17, − 0.86)
UA
 Model 1 0 (Ref) − 18.41 (− 29.11, − 7.70) − 21.72 (− 33.19, − 10.25) −9.00 (− 26.01, − 8.03)
 Model 2   − 10.17 (− 19.28, − 1.05) −11.87 (− 21.54, − 2.19) −5.69 (− 20.30, 8.95)
 Model 3   −17.21 (− 28.76, − 5.65) −16.47 (− 28.77, − 4.17) −19.30 (− 37.77, − 0.82)
 Model 4   − 15.15 (− 27.81, − 2.50) − 16.29 (− 29.61, − 2.97) −14.88 (− 35.18, 5.42)
 Model 5   −18.00 (− 32.52, −3.48) −18.73 (− 34.25, − 3.21) − 19.96 (− 45.61, 5.68)
eGFR
 Model 1 0 (Ref) 3.06 (0.26, 5.85) 2.65 (−0.26, 5.56) 4.20 (−0.37, 8.78)
 Model 2   3.59 (0.92, 6.28) 2.66 (−0.08, 5.39) 7.42 (3.02, 11.81)
 Model 3   5.94 (2.48, 9.41) 4.51 (1.15, 7.87) 12.29 (6.25, 18.33)
 Model 4   4.04 (0.30, 7.78) 2.69 (−0.92, 6.30) 8.31 (2.38, 13.85)
 Model 5   4.55 (0.25, 8.84) 4.17 (−0.03, 8.37) 7.70 (0.53, 15.94)
  1. aModel 1: Unadjusted regression; Model 2: Adjusted for sex, age, BMI and skeletal muscle mass based on Model 1; Model 3: Adjusted for physical activity, alcohol consumption and smoking status based on Model 2; Model 4: Adjusted for LDL, HDL, systolic pressure and fasting blood glucose in addition to the adjustments in Model 3; Model 5: Adjusted for vegetarian diet duration on the basis of Model 4
  2. bTotal vegetarians: lacto-ovo vegetarians and vegans
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