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Table 5 Multivariate analysis for cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in patients undergoing hemodialysis

From: Serum levels of protein carbonyl, a marker of oxidative stress, are associated with overhydration, sarcopenia and mortality in hemodialysis patients

  Cardiovascular All–cause
HR (95% CI) P HR (95% CI) P
Age 1.07 (1.01–1.13) 0.014 1.07 (1.03–1.11) 0.001
Gender (male vs. female) 1.12 (0.29–4.32) 0.870 0.67 (0.24–1.90) 0.453
Body mass index 1.11 (0.90–1.36) 0.348 1.01 (0.87–1.18) 0.904
Diabetes 1.05 (0.29–3.83) 0.723 1.52 (0.62–3.65) 0.363
CAD 4.45 (1.22–16.12) 0.024 2.58 (1.10–6.72) 0.015
CVD 1.42 (0.87–3.16) 0.420 0.64 (0.39–2.00) 0.318
PAOD 3.89 (1.01–18.41) 0.043 2.11 (0.94–20.8) 0.054
Dialysis vintage 1.01 (0.99–1.03) 0.256 1.00 (0.99–1.01) 0.613
IL-6 (log units) 3.38 (1.16–7.22) 0.002 2.93 (1.83–4.69) 0.001
Hs-CRP (log units) 1.75 (1.09–2.82) 0.021 1.89 (1.37–2.60) < 0.001
Albumin 0.07 (0.16–0.37) 0.002 0.17 (0.06–0.46) 0.003
Prealbumin 0.85 (0.76–0.95) 0.003 0.86 (0.80–0.92) 0.001
SGA (B vs. A) 3.86 (1.87–23.87) 0.003 6.51 (2.72–15.61) < 0.001
Sarcopenia 7.71 (1.83–32.57) 0.017 2.72 (1.11–6.63) 0.028
Overhydration 3.43 (0.77–15.23) 0.184 2.31 (1.26–8.71) 0.015
Carbonyl (log units) 6.90 (1.86–25.58) 0.004 2.37 (1.02–5.55) 0.036
  1. Multivariate logistic analysis was performed after adjusting for age, gender, BMI, diabetes, CAD, CVD, PAOD and dialysis vintage
  2. CAD coronary artery disease, CVD cerebrovascular disease, PAOD peripheral artery disease, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, SGA subjective global assessment