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Table 1 Characteristics of CKD patients according to DM comorbidity and GFR category

From: Foods contributing to nutrients intake and assessment of nutritional status in pre-dialysis patients: a cross-sectional study

Parameters Total
(n = 256)
DM-CKD
(n = 107)
Non-DM-CKD
(n = 149)
P value3,4
Early-CKD
(n = 49)
Late-CKD
(n = 58)
Early-CKD
(n = 77)
Late-CKD
(n = 72)
DM comorbidity GFR category Interaction
Sociodemographic parameter
 Age (years) 59.9 ± 12.11 60.7 ± 11.3a 63.4 ± 11.0a 56.0 ± 12.0b 60.5 ± 12.7a < 0.01 < 0.01 1.00
Medication and supplements
 Antihypertensive drug use, n (%) 223 (87.1) 44 (89.8) 53 (91.4) 70 (90.9) 56 (77.8)   < 0.05  
Clinical parameters
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 50.4 ± 27.31 71.4 ± 20.0a 29.0 ± 8.9b 74.6 ± 19.6a 27.5 ± 10.0b 0.08 < 0.001 1.00
 SBP (mmHg)5 128.1 ± 12.7 129.3 ± 9.5ab 132.4 ± 15.5a 124.9 ± 12.0b 127.1 ± 11.8ab < 0.01 0.07 1.00
 DBP (mmHg)5 77.8 ± 9.9 78.2 ± 9.9 76.7 ± 10.2 78.0 ± 10.6 78.1 ± 9.4 0.63 0.52 0.66
 Malnutrition, n (%)6 31 (12.1)2 6 (12.2) 12 (20.7) 1 (1.3) 12 (16.7)   < 0.01  
Biochemical data
 Creatinine (mg/dL)
  Male 1.83 ± 0.88 1.2 ± 0.3b 2.3 ± 0.7a 1.3 ± 0.2b 2.6 ± 1.0a 0.70 < 0.001 0.15
  Female 1.64 ± 1.02 0.8 ± 0.2b 2.4 ± 1.0a 0.8 ± 0.2b 2.4 ± 1.0a 0.96 < 0.001 0.53
  BUN (mg/dL) 26.9 ± 15.3 18.5 ± 6.8b 35.0 ± 17.3a 16.3 ± 4.3b 37.2 ± 14.8a 0.24 < 0.001 0.08
  Glucose (mg/dL) 114.5 ± 30.7 127.3 ± 28.7a 138.0 ± 45.6a 101.6 ± 10.4b 100.6 ± 9.7b < 0.001 0.09 0.21
  Serum albumin (g/dL) 4.2 ± 0.6 4.3 ± 0.3a 4.1 ± 0.4c 4.2 ± 0.3ab 4.2 ± 0.3b 0.69 < 0.001 < 0.01
  1. 1The data are presented as means ± standard deviations
  2. 2The data are presented as number (percentage)
  3. 3Two-way ANOVA was performed to compare parameters according to the DM comorbidity and GFR category. Means with different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) by Bonferroni multiple comparison test
  4. 4Chi-square test was performed to compare the categorical parameters according to the DM comorbidity and GFR category
  5. 5SBP and DBP data were missing in 8 subjects
  6. 6Malnutrition was defined using SGA by the clinical dietitian