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Table 2 Anthropometric characteristics and BIA measurement of the subjects according to DM comorbidity and GFR category

From: Foods contributing to nutrients intake and assessment of nutritional status in pre-dialysis patients: a cross-sectional study

Parameters Total
(n = 256)
DM-CKD
(n = 107)
Non-DM-CKD
(n = 149)
P value3
Early-CKD
(n = 49)
Late-CKD
(n = 58)
Early-CKD
(n = 77)
Late-CKD
(n = 72)
DM comorbidity GFR category Interaction
Anthropometric parameters
 Height (cm)
  Male 168.4 ± 6.11 166.9 ± 6.2 168.4 ± 6.4 168.6 ± 6.2 169.5 ± 5.5 0.20 0.30 0.51
  Female 155.5 ± 5.7 157.5 ± 3.6 153.8 ± 6.8 156.3 ± 4.6 154.7 ± 6.4 0.91 0.03 0.38
Bioelectrical impedance analysis(BIA)
 Weight (kg)
  Male 71.4 ± 11.5 73.2 ± 14.8 72.2 ± 11.0 71.8 ± 8.5 68.7 ± 12.1 0.23 0.31 0.43
  Female 61.5 ± 10.9 65.8 ± 12.1a 64.8 ± 13.3ab 60.8 ± 8.6ab 57.9 ± 9.6b < 0.01 0.28 0.73
 Body mass index, BMI (kg/m2)
  Male 25.1 ± 3.3 26.1 ± 4.0 25.4 ± 3.2 25.2 ± 2.6 23.8 ± 3.5 0.04 0.07 0.25
  Female 25.4 ± 4.2 26.4 ± 4.2ab 27.3 ± 5.0a 24.9 ± 3.7ab 24.2 ± 3.7b < 0.01 0.85 0.34
 Fat mass, FM (kg) 2
  Male 17.8 ± 7.0 19.8 ± 9.3 18.4 ± 7.1 17.9 ± 4.9 15.5 ± 6.8 0.11 0.04 0.18
  Female 21.9 ± 7.4 23.3 ± 8.4 23.9 ± 9.2 21.1 ± 6.7 20.7 ± 6.2 0.10 0.88 0.84
 Percent body fat, PBF (%)
  Male 24.5 ± 6.4 26.2 ± 6.8 25.3 ± 6.7 24.8 ± 5.2 22.0 ± 6.7 0.04 0.10 0.19
  Female 35.0 ± 6.3 35.1 ± 5.8 36.2 ± 8.1 34.2 ± 6.1 35.1 ± 5.7 0.46 0.44 0.90
 Fat free mass, FFM (kg)
  Male 53.5 ± 7.1 22.0 ± 6.7 53.8 ± 7.4 53.7 ± 6.5 53.1 ± 7.4 0.85 0.95 0.68
  Female 39.4 ± 5.3 41.5 ± 5.1a 40.9 ± 7.1ab 39.7 ± 3.7ab 37.2 ± 4.7b < 0.01 0.07 0.41
 Skeletal muscle mass, SMM (kg)
  Male 29.6 ± 4.3 29.7 ± 4.4 29.4 ± 4.6 30.0 ± 3.9 29.4 ± 4.5 0.79 0.51 0.81
  Female 21.2 ± 3.2 22.4 ± 3.0a 21.9 ± 4.1ab 21.4 ± 2.3ab 19.9 ± 2.9b 0.01 0.07 0.49
 Visceral fat area, VFA (cm2) 2
  Male 77.1 ± 31.8 86.1 ± 40.0 83.6 ± 33.4 74.3 ± 22.3 66.6 ± 30.3 < 0.01 0.21 0.13
  Female 105.1 ± 39.5 112.8 ± 39.4 115.9 ± 46.9 97.9 ± 38.1 101.0 ± 35.6 0.09 0.76 0.84
 Midarm circumference, MAC (cm) 2
  Male 26.0 ± 2.4 25.8 ± 4.0 25.8 ± 1.8 26.5 ± 1.8 25.7 ± 2.1 0.33 0.66 0.28
  Female 23.2 ± 2.0 23.9 ± 1.9 23.9 ± 2.6 23.1 ± 1.6 22.5 ± 1.9 < 0.01 0.41 0.50
 Phase angle, PhA (degrees) 5.3 ± 0.8 5.3 ± 0.7b 5.0 ± 0.7b 5.7 ± 0.7a 5.2 ± 0.8b < 0.001 < 0.001 1.00
 Body cell mass, BCM (kg) 31.0 ± 6.2 31.8 ± 5.8 31.7 ± 6.2 31.4 ± 5.9 29.4 ± 6.7 0.10 0.12 0.19
 Intracellular water, ICW (L) 21.6 ± 4.4 22.2 ± 4.0 22.1 ± 4.4 22.0 ± 4.1 20.5 ± 4.7 0.10 0.13 0.18
 Extracellular water, ECW (L) 13.6 ± 2.8 14.0 ± 2.5ab 14.3 ± 2.8a 13.3 ± 2.7ab 12.9 ± 2.8b < 0.01 0.73 0.27
 Total body water, TBW (L) 35.0 ± 7.4 36.2 ± 6.5 36.4 ± 7.1 35.2 ± 7.2 33.0 ± 8.1 0.02 0.24 0.17
 Extracellular fluid, ECF (ECW/TBW) 0.39 ± 0.01 0.39 ± 0.01a 0.39 ± 0.01b 0.38 ± 0.01c 0.39 ± 0.01a < 0.001 < 0.001 1.00
 Bone mineral mass, BMC (kg) 2.6 ± 0.5 2.7 ± 0.5 2.7 ± 0.6 2.7 ± 0.5 2.5 ± 0.5 0.05 0.23 0.20
  1. 1The data are presented as means ± standard deviations
  2. 2The variable was analyzed after transformed to natural logarithms
  3. 3Two-way ANOVA was performed to compare parameters according to the DM comorbidity and GFR category. Means with different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) by Bonferroni multiple comparison test