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Table 4 Major foods contributing to protein intake of CKD patients according to DM comorbidity and GFR category

From: Foods contributing to nutrients intake and assessment of nutritional status in pre-dialysis patients: a cross-sectional study

Ranking (% of Protein/d) Total
(n = 256)
DM-CKD
(n = 107)
Non-DM-CKD
(n = 149)
P value2, 3, 4
Early-CKD
(n = 49)
Late-CKD
(n = 58)
Early-CKD
(n = 77)
Late-CKD
(n = 72)
1 Refined grains4,5 17.1 ± 0.51 14.6 ± 1.1b 16.5 ± 1.0ab 16.7 ± 1.9ab 19.7 ± 1.0a < 0.01
2 Fish4 13.0 ± 0.7 11.7 ± 1.3 14.0 ± 1.4 13.2 ± 1.5 12.7 ± 1.4 0.76
3 Red meat4 12.9 ± 0.6 14.4 ± 1.3 12.0 ± 1.3 13.2 ± 1.5 12.5 ± 1.1 0.49
4 Legumes4, 5 8.5 ± 0.5 10.8 ± 1.2a 10.4 ± 1.4ab 6.7 ± 0.8b 7.2 ± 0.7ab < 0.01
5 Eggs4 5.4 ± 0.3 5.0 ± 0.5 4.6 ± 0.6 5.5 ± 0.6 6.3 ± 0.7 0.37
6 Whole grains4, 5 4.9 ± 0.4 6.4 ± 0.7a 6.2 ± 1.0ab 3.9 ± 0.4b 4.0 ± 0.7b < 0.01
7 Seafood2 4.5 ± 0.4 3.7 ± 0.8 4.0 ± 1.0 5.3 ± 0.6 4.7 ± 0.8 0.31
8 Cooked vegetables2 4.3 ± 0.2 4.2 ± 0.3 4.1 ± 0.4 4.3 ± 0.5 4.6 ± 0.4 0.58
9 Poultry2 4.2 ± 0.5 5.0 ± 1.2 5.1 ± 1.5 4.3 ± 0.5 2.7 ± 0.8 0.83
10 Seasoning3 3.5 ± 0.1 3.7 ± 0.3 3.5 ± 0.2 3.5 ± 0.4 3.5 ± 0.3 0.88
  1. 1The data are presented as means ± SEMs (standard error of means)
  2. 2The variable was analyzed after transformed to natural logarithms and one-way ANOVA was used
  3. 3The variable was analyzed after transformed to square root and one-way ANOVA was used
  4. 4Kruskal-Wallis test was used
  5. 5Means with different letters indicate significant differences (P < 0.05) by Bonferroni multiple comparison test