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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study participants

From: New oral spherical carbon adsorbent effectively reduces serum indoxyl sulfate levels in moderate to advanced chronic kidney disease patients: a multicenter, prospective, open-label study

  (n = 87)
Age (years) 62.8 ± 13.7
Sex, male (%) 70 (80.5)
BMI (kg/m2) 25.9 ± 4.1
Systolic BP (mmHg) 131.2 ± 11.7
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 79.0 ± 11.2
CKD duration (months) 70.0 ± 47.2
CKD stage
 Stage 3 (%) 45 (51.7)
 Stage 4 (%) 38 (43.7)
 Stage 5 (%) 3 (3.4)
Comorbidities (%)
 Hypertension 67 (77.0)
 Diabetes 41 (48.3)
 Cardiovascular disease 13 (14.9)
 Cerebrovascular disease 10 (11.5)
Laboratory data
 Indoxyl sulfate (mg/dL) 0.46 ± 0.41
 BUN (mg/dL) 35.1 ± 12.7
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL) 2.5 ± 0.8
 eGFR (mL/min/1.73m2) 31.6 ± 11.3
 Urine PCR (mg/g) 3613.4 ± 4203.2
 Hemoglobin (g/dL) 12.1 ± 2.0
 Phosphorus (mg/dL) 3.6 ± 0.6
 Intact PTH (mg/dL) 104.0 ± 101.3
 Uric acid (mg/dL) 7.1 ± 1.8
 Albumin (g/dL) 3.9 ± 0.6
 Serum Na (mmol/L) 139.5 ± 2.5
 Serum K (mmol/L) 4.8 ± 0.6
 Total CO2 (mmol/L) 23.8 ± 3.3
  1. Data are presented as mean ± standard deviation or number (percentage) of subjects
  2. Abbreviation: BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, CKD chronic kidney disease, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, PCR protein to creatinine ratio, PTH parathyroid hormone
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