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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of rapid progressors and stable patients

From: Predictive factors of rapid linear renal progression and mortality in patients with chronic kidney disease

Variable Rapid progressor
(n = 157)
Stable patient
(n = 179)
P-value
Age (years) 54.0 (43.5–64.0) 68.4 (58.8–76.5) < 0.001
Men, n (%) 81 (52) 128 (72) < 0.001
Caucasian, n (%) 152 (97) 174 (97) 0.833
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 144 (133–157) 137 (122–148) 0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 82 (74–91) 74 (66–80) < 0.001
Hypertension, n (%) 151 (96) 168 (94) 0.332
Diabetes, n (%) 41 (26) 67 (37) 0.027
Body mass index (kg/m2) 28.0 (24.5–32.0) 28.0 (24.5–32.2) 0.925
Past/current smoking history, n (%) 100 (64) 122 (68) 0.389
Myocardial infarction, n (%) 5 (3) 25 (14) 0.002
Peripheral vascular disease, n (%) 8 (5) 11 (6) 0.375
Stroke, n (%) 11 (7) 5 (3) 0.138
Heart failure, n (%) 2 (1) 10 (6) 0.047
ACEi/ARB, n (%) 112 (71) 118 (66) 0.286
Statin, n (%) 92 (58) 116 (65) 0.243
CKD stage 3, n (%) 109 (69) 78 (44) < 0.001
CKD stage 4, n (%) 48 (31) 101 (56) < 0.001
Years follow-up 3.9 (2.9–5.0) 7.5 (5.7–9.8) < 0.001
Primary renal disease
 Diabetic nephropathy, n (%) 31 (20) 39 (22) 0.646
 ADPKD, n (%) 52 (33) 2 (1) < 0.001
 Hypertensive nephropathy, n (%) 11 (7) 17 (10) 0.410
 Renovascular disease, n (%) 3 (2) 14 (8) 0.014
 Obstructive uropathy, n (%) 7 (4) 17 (9) 0.038
 Glomerulonephritis, n (%) 26 (17) 24 (13) 0.418
 Other causes, n (%) 21 (13) 39 (22) 0.045
 Unknown, n (%) 6 (4) 27 (15) < 0.001
Laboratory results
 Creatinine (umol/l) 171 (145–201) 193 (157–238) < 0.001
 eGFR-EPI (ml/min/1.73m2) 34 (28–41) 28 (22–37) < 0.001
 eGFR measurements, n 25 (16–36) 24 (15–38) 0.960
 Days between eGFR measurements, n 47 (24–91) 84 (39–135) < 0.001
 ΔGFR (±ml/min/1.73m2/yr) −5.930 (−7.345 to −4.810) −0.030 (−0.290 to 0.170) < 0.001
 Bicarbonate (mmol/L) 22.5 (20.2–25.0) 23.0 (20.7–24.9) 0.354
 Urea (mmol/L) 12.0 (9.6–15.0) 13.4 (10.8–17.6) 0.001
 Calcium (mmol/L) 2.31 (2.21–2.37) 2.28 (2.21–2.37) 0.350
 Phosphate (mmol/L) 1.16 (1.03–1.29) 1.05 (0.93–1.21) < 0.001
 Alkaline phosphatase (mmol/L) 78 (59–95) 83 (65–104) 0.025
 Albumin (g/L) 41 (38–44) 44 (42–46) < 0.001
 Total cholesterol/HDL ratio 3.55 (2.75–4.46) 3.17 (2.48–4.06) 0.007
 C-reactive protein (mg/L) 2.8 (1.2–7.3) 2.5 (1.0–5.7) 0.234
 Haemoglobin (g/L) 122 (113–134) 129 (119–137) 0.006
 Urine protein:creatinine ratio (g/mol) 102 (28–289) 17 (9–36) < 0.001
- A1 proteinuria (< 15 g/mol) 16 (10) 76 (42) < 0.001
- A2 proteinuria (15-50 g/mol) 44 (26) 73 (41) 0.005
- A3 proteinuria (> 50 g/mol) 107 (64) 30 (17) < 0.001
  1. Continuous data are presented as median (interquartile range) and categorical variables presented as number (percentage)
  2. P-value calculated by Mann-Whitney test for continuous data and Chi-squared test for categorical data
  3. Abbreviations: ADPKD (Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease); ACEi (Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor); ARB (Angiotensin receptor blocker); eGFR-EPI (eGFR calculated using the CKD-EPI equation)