Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Cardiorenal syndrome in thalassemia patients

  Total
(n = 90)
CRS
(n = 25)
No CRS
(n = 65)
OR p-value
Median age (yrs) (range) 29 (16–58) 30 (21–57) 28 (16–58)   0.256
Sex (%)     0.64 0.425
 Male 31 (34.4) 7 (28.0) 24 (36.9)   
 Female 59 (65.6) 18 (72.0) 41 (63.1)   
Mean arterial pressure (mmHg) (±SD) 76.3 (±8.8) 74.2 (±6.6) 77.1 (±9.5)   0.262
Diabetes mellitus (%) 5 (5.6) 2 (8.0) 3 (4.6) 1.80 0.615
Hypertension (%) 0 0 0   
Dyslipidemia (%) 0 0 0   
Hypothyroidism (%) 26 (28.9) 7 (28.0) 19 (29.2) 0.94 0.908
Adrenal insufficiency (%) 7 (7.8) 4 (16.0) 3 (4.6) 3.94 0.09
Thalassemia type (%)
 β0E thalassemia 57 (63.3) 11 (44.0) 46 (70.8) 0.325 0.018
 β00 thalassemia 26 (28.9) 12 (48.0) 14 (21.5) 3.36 0.013
 HemoglobinH disease 7 (7.8) 2 (8.0) 5 (7.7) 1.043 0.961
Pre-transfusion Hemoglobin (g/dL)
mean (±SD)
7.25 (±1.04) 7.18 (±1.14) 7.28 (±1.01)   0.70
Splenectomy (%)     2.71 0.055
 Yes 54 (60.0) 19 (76.0) 35 (53.8)   
 No 36 (40.0) 6 (24.0) 30 (46.2)   
Transfusion-dependent (%)     2.88 0.219
 Yes 75 (83.3) 23 (92.0) 52 (80.0)   
 No 15 (16.7) 2 (8.0) 13 (20.0)   
Presence of EMH (%)     4.59 0.02
 Yes 31 (34.4) 15 (60.0) 16 (24.6)   
 No 59 (65.6) 10 (40.0) 49 (75.4)   
Ferritin (ng/mL)
mean (±SD)
1783.2 (±1313.7) 1577.6 (±1133.2) 1877.0 (±1376.7)   0.30
Hemochromatosis (%)     2.60 0.047
 Yes 42 (46.7) 16 (64.0) 26 (40.0)   
 No 48 (53.3) 9 (36.0) 39 (60.0)   
Mean liver iron concentration (mg/g) (±SD) 13.78 (±5.89) 13.26 (±6.24) 14.02 (±5.80)   0.70
Mean cardiac T2 star (ms) (±SD) 37.20 (±12.23) 36.76 (±16.37) 37.42 (±9.98)   0.96
Type of iron chelation (%)
 Deferoxamine (DFO) 41 (45.6) 12 (48.0) 29 (44.6) 1.15 0.773
 Deferiprone (DFP) 65 (72.2) 18 (72.0) 47 (61.5) 0.99 0.977
 Deferasirox (DFX) 13 (14.4) 2 (8.0) 11 (16.9) 0.43 0.281
 Combined DFO + DFP 25 (27.8) 7 (28.0) 18 (27.7) 1.01 0.977
 Combined DFP + DFX 4 (4.4) 0 (0) 4 (6.2) 0.573
Presence of pulmonary hypertension (%)     25.50 < 0.001
 Yes 17 (18.9) 14 (56.0) 3 (4.6)   
 No 73 (81.1) 11 (44.0) 62 (95.4)   
Electrocardiogram (%)      0.138
 Normal sinus rhythm 63 (70.0) 15 (60.0) 48 (73.9)   
 Abnormal rhythm 7 (7.8) 1 (4.0) 6 (9.2)   
 ST segment change 20 (22.2) 9 (36.0) 11 (16.9)   
Echocardiogram
mean (±SD)
 Left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], (mmHg)   64.8 (±8.17) 65.0 (±4.67)   0.949
 Right ventricular systolic pressure [RVSP], (mmHg)   67.1 (±35.68) 49 (±2.82)   0.509
 Mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP], (mmHg)   50.1 (±42.2) 23.0 (±5.0)   0.324
 Tricuspid velocity [TV], (m/s)   329.7 (±95.7) 256.7 (±48.6)   0.090
E/A ratio of mitral valve   1.21 (±0.31) 1.55 (±0.54)   0.139
E/E’ ratio of mitral valve   11.9 (±2.2) 11.7 (±3.0)   0.899
Serum NT-proBNP (ng/ml) median (IQR) 137.01 (78.3–195.8) 141.6 (65.3–217.9) 99.47 (37.5–161.4)   0.028
Mean serum Creatinine (mg/dl) (±SD) 0.57 (±0.17) 0.55 (±0.2) 0.58 (±0.15)   0.37
Different in serum creatinine at 0 and 3 months (mg/dl) mean (±SD) 0.0689 (±0.055) 0.0688 (±0.057) 0.069 (±0.055)   1.00
24 h urine median (IQR)
 Protein (mg/24 h.) 193.0 (103.0-183.0) 273.0 (186.2–359.8) 175.0 (102.8–247.2)   < 0.001
 Potassium (mmol/24 h.) 26.9 (17.8–36.0) 30.3 (19.0–41.6) 25.6 (17.4–33.9)   0.214
 Phosphorus (mg/24 h.) 471.7 (309.4–634.1) 449.9 (213.3–686.5) 486.4 (332.5–640.5)   0.93
 Magnesium (mEq/24 h.) 4.1 (2.8–5.4) 5.48 (3.9–7.0) 3.85 (2.7–5.0)   0.008
 Calcium (mg/24 h.) 58.9 (13.1–104.7) 50.8 (1.8–99.8) 72.85 (26.6–119.1)   0.247
Mean urinary NGAL (ng/ml) median (IQR) 9.55 (3.8–15.3) 11.67 (3.5–19.9) 9.0 (4.4–13.6)   0.143
Chronic Urinary NGAL > 5 ng/ml (%)     2.82 0.038
 Yes 49 (54.4) 18 (72.0) 31 (47.7)   
 No 41 (45.6) 7 (28.0) 34 (52.3)   
  1. CRS Cardiorenal syndrome, OR odd ratio, EMH extramedullary hematopoiesis, yrs years, ms millisecond