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Table 3 Chronic excretion of urinary NGAL

From: Cardiorenal syndrome in thalassemia patients

  Chronic excretion of urinary NGAL OR p-value
Yes = 49
n (%)
No = 41
n (%)
Sex    5.15 < 0.001
 Male 9 (10.0) 22 (24.4)   
 Female 40 (44.4) 19 (21.1)   
Thalassemia type     0.207
 β0E thalassemia 30 (33.3) 27 (30.0)   
 β00 thalassemia 15 (16.7) 11 (12.2)   
 Hemoglobin H disease 4 (4.4) 3 (7.3)   
Splenectomy 29 (32.2) 25 (27.8) 0.92 0.055
Type of iron chelation
 Deferoxamine (DFO) 25 (27.8) 16 (17.8) 1.62 0.255
 Deferiprone (DFP) 39 (33.3) 26 (28.8) 2.25 0.088
 Deferasirox (DFX) 6 (6.7) 7 (7.8) 0.67 0.516
 Combined DFO + DFP 19 (21.1) 6 (6.7) 3.69 0.011
 Combined DFP + DFX 2 (2.1) 2 (2.1) 0.83 0.855
Presence of EMH 21 (23.3) 10 (11.1) 2.32 0.066
Presence of pulmonary hypertension 12 (13.3) 5 (5.6) 2.20 0.168
Presence of LVH 11 (12.2) 10 (11.1) 0.86 0.778
Presence of heart failure 7 (7.8) 1 (1.1) 6.67 0.067
Hemochromatosis 29 (32.2) 13 (14.4) 3.01 0.012
Elevated serum LDH 33 (36.7) 18 (20.0) 2.81 0.018
Elevated serum NT-proBNP 21 (23.3) 18 (20.0) 0.96 0.921
24 h urine, Median (IQR)
 Protein (mg/24 h.) 221.0 (143.4–298.6) 157.0 (80.3–233.8)   0.035
 Sodium (mmol/24 h.) 126.0 (76.6–175.4) 127.0 (80.4–173.6)   0.471
 Magnesium (mEq/24 h.) 4.9 (3.1–6.7) 3.8 (2.5–5.0)   0.094
Chronic Proteinuria 33 (36.7) 18 (20.0) 2.63 0.025
Cardiorenal syndrome 18 (20.0) 7 (7.8) 2.82 0.038
Mean liver iron concentration (mg/g) (±SD) 13.98 (±5.65) 13.4 (±6.34)   0.793
Mean cardiac T2 star (ms) (±SD) 38.0 (±14.1) 36.0 (±9.19)   0.591
Echocardiogram
mean (±SD)
 Left ventricular ejection fraction [LVEF], (mmHg) 66.2 (±6.4) 62.1 (±8.4)   0.198
 Right ventricular systolic pressure [RVSP], (mmHg) 56.0 (±17.7) 99.0 (±72.2)   0.093
 Mean pulmonary arterial pressure [mPAP], (mmHg) 53.0 (±39.6) 18.2 (±0.4)   0.192
 Tricuspid velocity [TV], (m/s) 308.9 (± 64.5) 316.5 (±135.5)   0.853
 E/A ratio of tricuspid valve 1.21 (±0.34) 1.45 (±0.44)   0.240
 E/E’ ratio of tricuspid valve 12.7 (±2.38) 10.05 (±0.92)   0.087
  1. EMH extramedullary hematopoiesis, LVH left ventricular hypertrophy, LDH lactic acid dehydrogenase