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Table 1 Characteristics of the observational studies

From: Impact of physical activity and exercise on bone health in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of observational and experimental studies

Study (design) Country Sample size (male %); Population BMD assessment techniques (anatomical sites) Bone biomarkers PA assessment method Results BMD Results Bone biomarkers
Dolgos et al. 2008 [20] (Cross-sectional) Norway n = 108 (68%) Kidney Transplant DXA – Lunar (LS, proximal femur both sides, and total body) iPTH Self-report questionnaire
Physical active vs. physical
Inactive (defined as regular weight-bearing physical exercise performed at least twice a week for 30 min)
Association with total body BMD
No association with LS and proximal femur BMD
No association with iPTH
Huang et al. 2009 [22] (Cross-sectional) Taiwan n = 35 HD DXA – Hologic (LS and FN) iPTH
Self-report interview questionnaire
Total weekly exercise time (min/week): regular exercise (yes or no), exercise type (impact or non-impact) and effective exercise time (min/week)
Positive association with all BMD outcomes No association with all bone biomarkers
Morishita et al. 2014 [24] (Cross-sectional) Japan n = 32 (56%) HD BALP
Device- Triaxial pedometer
Vigorous and moderate PA volumes per week
No association with all bone biomarkers
Ota et al. 1997 [25] (Cross-sectional) Japan n = 32 (0%) HD DXA – Lunar (Total body and LS) iPTH
Device – Accelerometer
Total energy expenditure per day (Kcal) for 7 days - mean energy expenditure per day
Positive association with total body BMD
No association with LS BMD
No association with all bone biomarkers
Groth et al. 1995 [21] (Longitudinal - 2-year follow-up) Germany n = 115 (61%) Kidney Transplant DXA- Lunar (LS) ALP
Self-report questionnaire
Estimated energy spending during sports
Positive association with bone gain (r = 0.2, p < 0.05) No association with all bone biomarkers
Malluche et al. 2017 [23] (Longitudinal - 1-year follow-up) USA n = 45 HD DXA - Lunar and QCT (LS and proximal femur) TRAP-5b; BALP
P1NP; Sclerostin
DKK1; FGF-23
Self-report questionnaire Exercised 1+ days/week No association with bone loss No association with all bone biomarkers
  1. ALP Alkaline Phosphatase, BALP Bone-specific Alkaline Phosphatase, BMD Bone Mineral Density, DKK1 Dickkopf-related protein 1, DXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, FGF-23 Fibroblast Growth Factor 23, FN Femoral Neck, HD Haemodialysis, iPTH Intact Parathyroid Hormone, LS Lumbar Spine, OC Osteocalcin, PA Physical Activity, P1NP Procollagen type I N-terminal Propeptide, TRAP-5b Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b