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Table 2 Characteristics of the experimental studies

From: Impact of physical activity and exercise on bone health in patients with chronic kidney disease: a systematic review of observational and experimental studies

Study (design) Country Sample size (male %) Population BMD assessment techniques (anatomical sites) Bone biomarkers Exercise intervention Results BMD Results Bone biomarkers
Eatemadololama et al. 2017 [26] (RCT) Iran n = 24
CG = 12
EG = 12
Kidney Transplant
DXA – Hologic
(proximal femur and LS)
Resistance exercise (10 min stretching exercises, 10 min walking, 10 min cycling, 20 min RE for UL, 20 min RE for LL; RE intensity 50% of 1RM increasing 5 to 10%; 2 days/week; 12 weeks) EG: ↑ proximal femur
= LS
CG: ↓ proximal femur
↓ LS
EG vs CG: no comparison
Gomes et al. 2017 [27] (RCT) Brazil n = 39 (71%)
CG = 15
EG = 24
CKD Stages 3–4
TRAP-5b
PTH
Sclerostin
ALP
OC
Aerobic exercise (40–60% of maximum VO2; 30 min; 3 days/week; 24 weeks) EG: ↑ ALP
CG: = all biomarkers
EG vs CG: ↑ ALP (favouring EG)
Liao et al. 2016 [28] (RCT) Taiwan n = 40 (43%)
CG = 20
EG = 20
HD
DXA (LS and FN) iPTH Intradialytic aerobic exercise (12–15 BPES; 30 min; 3 days/week; 12 weeks) EG: = all bone sites
CG: = all bone sites
EG vs CG: ↑ FN BMD loss (favouring CG)
EG: = all biomarkers
CG: = all biomarkers
EG vs CG: no comparison
Marinho et al. 2016 [29] (RCT) Brazil n = 13 (46%)
CG = 7
EG = 6
HD
iPTH
BALP
Sclerostin
Intradialytic resistance exercise (60–70% of 3RM; 4 exercises; 3 days/week; 8 weeks) EG: ↑ BALP
CG: = all biomarkers
EG vs CG: no comparison
Rosa et al. 2018 [30] (RCT) Brazil n = 52 (67%)
CG = 24
EG = 28
HD
DXA – Hologic (Total body - BMC) Intradialytic resistance exercise (60% of 1RM; 40-50 min; 3 days/week; 12 weeks) EG: = total body BMC
CG: = total body BMC
EG vs CG: ↑ BMC (favouring EG)
Effect size = 0.65
Marinho et al. 2017 [32] (Non-RCT) Brazil n = 26 (65%)
CG = 12
EG = 14
HD
OC
OPN
OPG
iPTH
Intradialytic resistance exercise (60–70% of 1RM; 4 exercises; 3 sets; 10 repetitions; 3 days/week; 24 weeks) EG: ↑ OPG
CG: = all biomarkers
EG vs CG: no comparison
Marinho et al. 2016 [31] (Non-RCT) Brazil n = 21 (67%)
CG = 11
EG = 10
HD
DXA – Lunar (FN, LS, proximal femur and total body) PTH Intradialytic resistance exercise (60–70% of 1RM; 4 exercises; 3 sets; 10 repetitions; 3 days/week; 24 weeks) EG: ↑ femoral neck
CG: = all bone sites
EG vs CG: no comparison
EG: = PTH
CG: no comparison
EG vs CG: no comparison
  1. ALP Alkaline Phosphatase, BALP Bone-specific Alkaline Phosphatase, BMD Bone Mineral Density, BMC Bone Mineral Content, BPES Borg Perceived Exertion Scale, CG Control Group, DXA Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, EG Exercise Group, FN Femoral Neck, HD Haemodialysis, iPTH Intact Parathyroid Hormone, LL Lower Limb, LS Lumbar Spine, OC Osteocalcin, OPG Osteoprotegerin, OPN Osteopontin, P1NP Procollagen type I N-terminal Propeptide, PTH Parathyroid Hormone, RE Resistance Exercise, RM One Repetition Maximum, TRAP-5b Tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b, UL Upper Limb, ↑ significant increase, = no change, ↓ significant decrease