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Table 3 Multiple logistic regression models (odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals) for the associations with chronic kidney disease (CKD) determined by the CKD-EPI, Cockcroft-Gault and MDRD formulae

From: Prevalence, concordance and associations of chronic kidney disease by five estimators in South Africa

  CKD-EPI creatinine CKD-EPI cystatin C CKD-EPI creatinine-cystatin C Cockcroft-Gault MDRD
Age in years: < 34 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00
 35–44 0.89 (0.15–5.40) 7.99 (0.95–66.87) 1.66 (0.50–5.50) 2.74 (0.25–30.26) 1.38 (0.34–5.60)
 45–54 3.76 (1.00–14.17) 12.92 (1.64–102.02) 3.50 (1.22–10.01) 6.20 (0.68–56.27) 3.65 (1.14–11.71)
 55–64 10.15 (2.80–36.82) 29.05 (3.73–226.48) 9.83 (3.56–27.17) 10.25 (1.13–92.96) 7.90 (2.49–25.11)
  ≥ 65 14.95 (4.03–55.52) 98.09 (12.92–745.01) 22.20 (8.05–61.24) 53.55 (6.74–425.36) 11.81 (3.62–38.49)
Gender: female 1.13 (0.47–2.73) 0.53 (0.26–1.09) 1.23 (0.63–2.41) 0.61 (0.23–1.65) 1.56 (0.66–3.64)
BMI ≥30 kg/m2 2.81 (1.21–6.55) 2.60 (1.26–5.38) 1.98 (1.06–3.69) 0.81 (0.29–2.24) 2.04 (0.95–4.35)
Hypertension 2.57 (1.01–6.50) 1.73 (0.83–3.58) 1.70 (0.89–3.24) 3.09 (0.95–10.04) 2.61 (1.13–6.04)
Heart rate ≥ 90 beats/min 3.98 (1.56–10.14) 1.96 (0.70–5.53) 1.54 (0.60–3.95) 1.91 (0.41–8.98) 3.14 (1.27–7.74)
Diabetes 2.09(1.01–4.30) 1.30 (0.66–2.57) 1.02 (0.54–1.93) 1.81 (0.69–4.73) 1.82 (0.91–3.66)
Increasing TC 1.15 (0.86–1.54) 1.06 (0.81–1.38) 1.04 (0.82–1.31) 1.14 (0.78–1.65) 1.15 (0.87–1.50)
Increasing HDL-C 0.45 (0.15–1.35) 0.79 (0.36–1.73) 0.65 (0.31–1.38) 0.60 (0.19–1.88) 0.54 (0.21–1.42)
Increasing triglycerides 1.23(0.99–1.54) 1.17 (0.94–1.45) 1.10 (0.87–1.40) 1.21 (0.96–1.54) 1.20 (0.98–1.47)
Increasing LDL-C 1.44(1.02–2.02) 1.18 (0.87–1.62) 1.18 (0.90–1.56) 1.52 (0.98–2.33) 1.39 (1.02–1.91)
Increasing HDL-C: TC ratio 0.96 (0.90–1.01) 1.01 (0.99–1.04) 1.00 (0.98–1.03) 0.98 (0.93–1.03) 0.96 (0.91–1.01)
Metabolic syndrome 2.70 (1.20–6.06) 1.16 (0.61–2.22) 1.15 (0.65–2.06) 1.38 (0.54–3.57) 2.99 (1.39–6.46)
  1. Significant values (p < 0.05) are in bold. MDRD: Modification of Diet in Renal Disease, BMI: body mass index; TC: total cholesterol; HDL-C: high-density lipoprotein cholesterol; LDL-C: low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. The models with metabolic syndrome were adjusted for age and gender but not BMI ≥30 kg/m2. When the cardiometabolic variables were entered separately and individually in the basic model (age, gender and body mass index) for CKD determined by the CDK-EPI creatinine formula, there was no change in the direction or significance of the other variables except for the model with heart rate where age 45–54 years was now significant. For CKD determined by CKD-EPI cystatin C, CKD-EPI creatinine/cystatin C and MDRD formula, age 45–54 years and BMI ≥30 kg/m2 were no longer significant in some models when the cardiometabolic variables were entered separately and individually in the basic models. Age 55–64 years was not significant in the Cockcroft-Gault models with hypertension, LDL-C or metabolic syndrome