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Table 3 Primary and secondary outcomes of the ‘Save the Kidney’-bundle

From: Bundled care in acute kidney injury in critically ill patients, a before-after educational intervention study

Outcome Usual care group STK group RR (95%CI) P-value
Number of patients 1295 1347  
Primary outcome (AKI progression, need for RRT and ICU mortality) (N (%)) 388 (30) 465 (36) 1.15 (1.03–1.29)
0.001 (*)
Overall ICU mortality (N (%)) 72 (5.6) 91 (6.8) 1.22 (0.90–1.64)
0.068 (*)
Need for RRT during ICU admission (N (%)) 46 (3.6) 22 (1.6) 0.46 (0.28–0.76)
0.002 (*)
AKI progression (N (%)) 326 (25) 402 (31) 1.19 (1.05–1.34)
0.001 (**)
Maximum AKI stage during 48 h    0.87 (0.82–0.93)
No AKI (N (%)) 863(67) 783 (61) < 0.001 (***)
AKI stage 1 (N (%)) 238 (18) 299 (23) 1.21 (1.04–1.41)
AKI stage 2 (N (%)) 128 (10) 169 (13) 1.27 (1.02–1.58)
AKI stage 3 (N (%)) 66 (5.1) 41 (3.2) 0.6 (0.41–0.88)
ICU LoS (days; median [IQR]) 2 [2–3] 2 [2–3] 0.319 (*)
Hospital mortality (N (%)) 117 (9) 137 (10.2) 0.248 (*)
  1. STK ‘Save the Kidney’, AKI Acute kidney injury, RRT Renal replacement therapy, ICU Intensive care unit, LoS Length of stay, IQR Inter quartile range, RR Relative risk, CI Confidence interval. (*): p value considering difference between outcome in the usual care group and the STK group. (**) p value considering difference in AKI incidence between both groups. (***) p value considering difference in AKI severity between both groups