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Table 1 Characteristics of 262 CRS patients with and without hyponatremia at hospital admission

From: Diabetes prevalence and outcomes in hospitalized cardiorenal-syndrome patients with and without hyponatremia

  CRS patients with hyponatremiaa CRS patients without hyponatremiaa
% n n mean ± SD nb % n n mean ± SD nb p value
Patient characteristics
 Men (n) 36.7 33   90 52.3 90   172 0.019
 Women (n) 63.3 57   90 47.7 82   172
 Age (years)   90 74.0 ± 13.0 90    73.8 ± 13.0 172 0.768
 Body mass index (kg/m2)   41 30.2 ± 8.1 90   98 30.3 ± 7.3 172 0.709
 Hypovolemia 41.1 37   90 16.3 28   172 < 0.0001
 Diarrhea (n) 17.8 16   90 5.2 9   172 0.002
 Classes of oral diuretics per patient (n)   88 1.6 ± 1.0 90   161 1.3 ± 0.7 172 0.003
 Torasemide (mg/d)   68 23.1 ± 49.0 90   57 19.2 ± 28.0 172 0.612
 Furosemide (mg/d)   70 34.4 ± 135.8 90   62 1.9 ± 7.9 172 0.003
 Hydrochlorothiazide (mg/d)   71 7.7 ± 11.5 90   57 2.2 ± 6.3 172 0.002
 Xipamide (mg/d)   67 4.3 ± 16.4 90   62 0.8 ± 3.3 172 0.159
 Spironolactone (mg/d)   69 13.8 ± 38.2 90   63 5.0 ± 17.9 172 0.109
 Eplerenone (mg/d)   70 1.1 ± 5.1 90   63 1.4 ± 5.6 172 0.707
Laboratory parameters
 Na (serum, mmol/L)   90 129.6 ± 5.1 90   172 139.4 ± 3.0 172 < 0.0001
 Na at discharge (serum, mmol/L)   23 136.5 ± 4.3 75   16 139.0 ± 3.9 136 < 0.0001
 Na (urine, mmol/L)   37 68.2 ± 34.5 90   76 78.3 ± 30.0 172 0.113
 Na (collecting urine, mmol/24 h)   31 191.0 ± 163.8 90   63 185.5 ± 109.2 172 0.477
 Urea (serum, mmol/L)   87 26.3 ± 14.6 90   160 22.4 ± 16.1 172 0.006
 Cystatin C (serum, mg/mL)   25 2.7 ± 1.0 90   46 2.7 ± 1.1 172 0.827
 Creatinine prior to hospitalization (serum, μmol/L)   53 148.8 ± 61.3 90   96 171.1 ± 107.0 172 0.251
 Creatinine (serum, μmol/L)   90 300.7 ± 205.8 90   172 285.5 ± 256.1 172 0.147
 Osmolality, calculated (serum, mosm/kg)   52 295.6 ± 22.2 90   93 308.4 ± 18.9 172 0.0002
 C-reactive protein (serum, mg/L)   89 57.8 ± 75.0 90   172 54.5 ± 80.4 172 0.308
 Procalcitonine (serum, pg/mL)   24 1.7 ± 2.6 90   38 1.0 ± 1.9 172 0.680
Renal and cardiac parameters
 Acute kidney injury 71.1 64   90 45.9 79   172  
  AKIN 1 48.4 31   64 31.6 25   79  
  AKIN 2 11.0 7   64 15.2 12   79  
  AKIN 3 40.6 26   64 53.2 42   79  
 Chronic kidney disease 28.9 26   90 54.1 93   172  
  KDIGO 1–3 42.3 11   26 52.6 49   93  
  KDIGO 4 19.2 5   26 23.7 22   93  
  KDIGO 5 38.5 10   26 23.7 22   93  
 Estimated glomerular filtration rate, if steady state (mL/min/1.73 m2)   26 27.9 ± 19.8 90   93 31.7 ± 20.1 172 0.403
 arteriovenous fistula, preexisting (n) 5.5 5   90 14.5 25   172 0.017
 Left ventricular ejection fraction (%)   56 48.5 ± 12.7 90   102 44.4 ± 13.4 172 0.046
 Brain natriuretic peptide (serum, pg/mL)   56 1321.0 ± 1851.0 90   117 1319.0 ± 1725.0 172 0.940
Diabetes-related parameters
 Diabetes mellitus (n) 66.7 60   90 65.7 113   172 0.892
  - insulin- dependent (n) 65.0 39   60 66.4 75   113 0.973
  - oral antidiabetics (n) 8.3 5   60 11.5 13   113 0.608
  - diet alone (n) 26.7 16   60 22.1 25   113 0.574
 Glucose on admission, non-fasting (capillary blood, mmol/L)   51 9.6 ± 6.6 90   96 7.7 ± 3.5 172 0.063
 Glucose, fasting (capillary blood, mmol/L)   15 7.5 ± 2.6 90   27 6.7 ± 1.7 172 0.209
 HbA1c (%)   28 7.6 ± 2.6 90   47 6.6 ± 0.8 172 0.235
 Hypoglycemia (symptomatic) on admission (n) 8.9 8   90 4.6 8   172 0.184
Outcome parameters
 Hospitalization (days)    16.5 ± 11.0 76   159 18.5 ± 16.5 172 0.905
 new-onset hemodialysis (in hospital, n) 36.7 33   90 31.4 54   172 0.409
 chronic dialysisc (n) 19.6 10   51 27.0 27   103 0.104
 Death in hospital (n) 15.6 14   90 7.6 13   172 0.054
 One-year mortality (n) 43.3 39   90 40.1 69   172 0.692
  1. a hyponatremia at a serum Na concentration of < 135 mmol/L
  2. b final number of CRS patients subjected to statistical analysis. This number can be lower than the maximum number due to the lack of data
  3. c hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis