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Table 2 Associations between sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics and eGFR/eGFR< 90 in participants without diabetes, hypertension, proteinuria, n = 821

From: Prevalence and risk factors for chronic kidney disease of unknown cause in Malawi: a cross-sectional analysis in a rural and urban population

Variable Model 1 Minimal adjustment Model 2 Fully adjusted Model 3 Minimal adjustment Model 4Fully adjusted
eGFR eGFR eGFR < 90 eGFR < 90
Coefficient (95%CI)a; Coefficient (95%CI)b; OR (95%CI)a; OR (95%CI)b;
Age c (per 10-year increase) −8.73 (−9.37, −8.09) −8.86 (−9.60, −8.15) 3.21 (2.49, 4.29) 3.59 (2.58, 5.21)
Sex d
 Male 0.02 (−1.62, 1.68) −0.45 (−2.40, 1.47) 0.76 (0.34, 1.67) 1.44 (0.48, 5.05)
 Female Ref Ref Ref Ref
Area
 Urban (Area 25) Ref Ref Ref Ref
 Rural (Bonje) 3.85 (2.05, 5.64) 3.82 (1.51, 6.32) 0.69 (0.27, 1.92) 1.75 (0.50, 6.30)
Education (years)
 ≤ 5 4.51 (1.10, 7.93) 4.29 (0.77, 7.69) 0.55 (0.14, 2.02) 0.64 (0.14, 2.56)
 > 5 ≤ 10 1.29 (−0.56, 3.15) 1.31 (− 0.57, 3.18) 0.78 (0.30, 2.03) 0.86 (0.31, 2.39)
 > 10 Ref Ref Ref Ref
Occupation
 Agricultural worker −1.06 (−3.14, 1.01) − 1.11 (− 3.20, 1.02) 0.44 (0.17, 1.21) 0.42 (0.15, 1.17)
 Non-agricultural worker Ref Ref Ref Ref
Household monthly income (MK) e
 Unknown −1.86 (−7.60, 3.87) −2.26 (−8.01, 3.50) 1.39 (0.06, 13.66) 2.21 (0.09, 20.58)
 MK 0 ≤ 20,000 Ref Ref Ref Ref
 MK > 20,000 −0.34 (−2.16, 1.47) − 0.01 (− 1.85, 1.87) 1.32 (0.54, 3.23) 1.05 (0.40, 2.78)
BMI (kg/m2)
 5 kg/m2 increase −0.99 (−2.8, 0.09) − 0.94 (− 2.02, 0.17) 2.00 (1.29 3.15) 2.01 (1.27, 3.43)
Fat Free Mass (kg)
 (Per 5 kg increase) −0.02 (− 0.07, 0.02) −0.02 (− 0.07, 0.02) 1.00 (0.00, 1.02) 0.99 (0.03, 1.03)
Healthy lifestyle choices
 Non-smoker or alcohol drinker −1.49 (−3.57, 0.59) − 1.43 (− 3.50, 0.70) 2.07 (0.72, 6.64) 2.06 (0.68, 7.06)
 Smoker and alcohol drinker Ref Ref Ref Ref
Regular meat-eater
 Yes −0.40 (−2.32, 1.51) − 0.33 (− 2.27, 1.65) 1.34 (0.58, 3.39) 1.04 (0.43, 2.72)
 No Ref Ref Ref Ref
  1. Hypertension = systolic bp ≥140 mmHg, or diastolic bp ≥90 mmHg; Diabetes = fasting glucose > = 7 mg/l; Proteinuria = ACR > =30 mg/mmol
  2. aminimal adjustment for age, sex and area
  3. ball variables mutually adjusted
  4. cadjusted for sex and area
  5. dadjusted for age and area
  6. eExchange rate (MK to USD) 0.001 at time of questionnaire