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Table 2 U-osmolality (U-Osm), urine excretion of aquaporin2 (u-AQP2), urine output (UO), and free water clearance (CH2O) during a water deprivation test in patients with adult dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), patients with non-ADPKD kidney disease (Non-ADPKD), and healthy control subjects (Controls). Urine was collected in four periods. Period 1 (twelve hours): from 0730 PM the day before arrival to the laboratory to 0730 AM on the examination day. Period 2 (one hour): 0730 to 0830 AM. Period 3 (two hours): 0830–1030 AM. Period 4 (two hours): 1030–1230 AM

From: Urine concentration ability is reduced to the same degree in adult dominant polycystic kidney disease compared with other chronic kidney diseases in the same CKD-stage and lower THAN in healthy control subjects - a CASE control study

  Period 1
07.30 PM- 07.30 AM
Period 2
07.30 AM- 08.30 AM
Period 3
08.30 AM–10.30 AM
Period 4
10.30 AM- 12.30 PM
U-Osm (mosmol/kg)
 ADPKD 498 ± 149 518 ± 143* 491 ± 133* 569 ± 105*
 Non-ADPKD 496 ± 220 603 ± 143* 532 ± 192* 579 ± 114*
 Controls 620 ± 233 765 ± 150 694 ± 198 757 ± 167
Comparison within groups 0.339
Comparison between groups < 0.001
UO (ml/min)
 ADPKD 1.6 ± 0.7 1.3 ± 0.5* 1.8 ± 1.1* 1.3 ± .5*
 Non-ADPKD 1.5 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.3* 1.6 ± 0.7* 1.2 ± 0.4*
 Controls 1.1 ± 0.6 0.7 ± 0.3 1.0 ± 0.5 0.9 ± 0.3
Comparison within groups 0.736
Comparison between groups 0.001
CH2O (ml/min)
 ADPKD −0.8 ± 0.5 −0.9 ± 0.5 −0.9 ± 0.8 −1.1 ± 0.4
 Non-ADPKD − 0.8 ± 0.7 −1.0 ± 0.5 −0.9 ± 0.5 −1.1 ± 0.4
 Controls − 0.9 ± 0.5 −1.1 ± 0.5 −1.1 ± 0.4 −1.3 ± 0.3
Comparison within groups 0.560
Comparison between groups 0.482
U-AQP2 (ng/ml)
 ADPKD 0.8 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.4* 0.7 ± 0.3* 0.8 ± 0.2*
 Non-ADPKD 0.8 ± 0.6 1.0 ± 0.5* 0.7 ± 0.4 0.8 ± 0.2*
 Controls 1.1 ± 0.5 1.5 ± 0.6 1.1 ± 0.7 1.1 ± 0.4
Comparison within groups 0.407
Comparison between groups 0.001
AQP2 (ng/min)
 ADPKD 0.6 [0.2;0.8] 0.7 [0.4;1.5]* 0.5 [0.3;0.9]* 0.6 [0.3;0.9]*
 Non-ADPKD 0.4 [0.2;0.6]* 1.0 [0.6;1.6]* 0.5 [0.2;1.0]* 0.7 [0.5;1.0]*
 Controls 0.7 [0.2;0.6] 2.1 [1.5;3.8] 1.5 [1.1;2.1] 1.4 [1.0; 2.2]
Kruskal-Wallis test 0.097 0.001 0.003 0.002
  1. A General Linear Model with Greenhouse-Geisser correction was used for comparison within and between the three groups. Values represent mean ± SD or median with 25 and 75% percentiles in brackets * = p < 0.05 between ADPKD or non-ADPKD- patients and healthy controls. # = p < 0.05 between ADPKD and non-ADPKD- patients
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