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Table 3 Fractional excretion of sodium, (FENa), urine excretion of a fraction of epithelial sodium channel (u-ENaC), urine albumin excretion rate (u-Alb), creatinine clearance (CCreatinine) during a water deprivation test in patients with adult dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), patients with non-ADPKD kidney disease (Non-ADPKD), and healthy control subjects (Controls). Urine was collected in four periods. Period 1 (twelve hours): from 0730 PM the day before arrival to the laboratory to 0730 AM on the examination day. Period 2 (one hour): 0730 to 0830 AM. Period 3 (two hours): 0830–1030 AM. Period 4 (two hours): 1030–1230 AM

From: Urine concentration ability is reduced to the same degree in adult dominant polycystic kidney disease compared with other chronic kidney diseases in the same CKD-stage and lower THAN in healthy control subjects - a CASE control study

  Period 1
07.30 PM- 07.30 AM
Period 2
07.30 AM- 08.30 AM
Period 3
08.30 AM–10.30 AM
Period 4
10.30 AM- 12.30 PM
FENa (%)
 ADPKD 1.1 ± 0.5* 0.9 ± 0.5* 1.2 ± 0.7* 1.2 ± 0.7*
 Non-ADPKD 1.3 ± 0.8* 1.1 ± 0.7* 1.5 ± 1.0* 1.4 ± 1.0*
 Controls 0.6 ± 0.3 0.5 ± 0.2 0.7 ± 0.3 0.8 ± 0.3
Comparison within groups 0.910
Comparison between groups 0.014
U-ENaC (ng/ml)
 ADPKD 0.6 ± 0.3* 0.6 ± 0.3* 0.4 ± 0.2* 0.4 ± 0.2*
 Non-ADPKD 0.6 ± 0.3 0.9 ± 0.5 0.5 ± 0.3* 0.5 ± 0.2*
 Controls 0.9 ± 0.4 1.2 ± 0.5 0.8 ± 0.5 0.8 ± 0.3
Comparison within groups 0.394
Comparison between groups 0.003
U-ENaC (ng/min)
 ADPKD 0.3 [0.1;0.9]* 0.5 [0.2;1.0]* 0.3 [0.2;0.6]* 0.3 [0.2;0.5]*
 Non-ADPKD 0.3 [0.2;0.6]* 0.9[0.5;1.2]* 0.3 [0.1;0.6]* 0.4 [0.3;1.0]*
 Controls 0.8 [0.4;2.0] 1.7[1.2;2.9] 1.2 [0.5;2.1] 0.9 [0.7;1.9]
Krusal-Wallis H 0.023 0.001 0.011 < 0.001
U-Alb (mg/min)
 ADPKD 0.01 [0.01;0.02]* 0.02 [0.01;0.05]# 0.01 [0.00;0.03] 0.01 [0.01;0.03]#
 Non-ADPKD 0.04 [0.01;0.17]* 0.08 [0.02;0.44]* 0.02 [0.01;0.49]* 0.4 [0.14;0.22]*
 Controls 0.01 [0.00;0.01] 0.01 [0.01;0.02) 0.01 [000;0.02] 0.01 [0.00;0.02]
Kruskal-Wallis test 0.003 0.001 0.032 0.001
CCreatinine (ml/min)
 ADPKD 104.0 ± 43.3 109 ± 41 108 ± 36* 106 ± 40*
 Non-ADPKD 101.3 ± 57.9 93 ± 50* 101 ± 50* 94 ± 48*
 Controls 127.7 ± 27.7 133 ± 28 131 ± 24 132 ± 23
Comparison within groups 0.809
Comparison between groups 0.040
  1. A General Linear Model with Greenhouse-Geisser correction was used for comparison within and between the three groups. Values represent mean ± SD or median with 25 and 75% percentiles in brackets * = p < 0.05 between ADPKD or non-ADPKD- patients and healthy controls. # = p < 0.05 between ADPKD and non-ADPKD- patients