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Table 1 General characteristics of study patients

From: Serum neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin at 3 hours after return of spontaneous circulation in patients with cardiac arrest and therapeutic hypothermia: early predictor of acute kidney injury

Characteristics Total Acute kidney injury Neurologic outcome at discharge
(−) (+) p-value Good Poor p-value
Number of patients 89 (100.0) 40 (44.9) 49 (55.1)   35 (39.3) 54 (60.7)  
Sex        0.430      0.124
 Male 63 (70.8) 30 (75.0) 33 (67.3)   28 (80.0) 35 (64.8)  
 Female 26 (29.2) 10 (25.0) 16 (32.7)   7 (20.0) 19 (35.2)  
Age (years) 56.0 (43.5–66.0) 53.0 (43.0–62.0) 58.0 (44.5–67.0) 0.358 55.0 (43.0–62.0) 56.0 (44.8–68.0) 0.245
Medical history
 HTN 28 (31.5) 11 (27.5) 17 (34.7) 0.467 13 (37.1) 15 (27.8) 0.353
 DM 18 (20.2) 5 (12.5) 13 (26.5) 0.101 7 (20.0) 11 (20.4) 0.966
 HF 2 (2.2) 1 (2.5) 1 (2.0) 1.000 1 (2.9) 1 (1.9) 1.000
Initial rhythm by EMS or hospital        < 0.001      < 0.001
 Vf 40 (44.9) 26 (65.0) 14 (28.6)   26 (74.3) 14 (25.9)  
 PEA 18 (20.2) 9 (22.5) 9 (18.4)   5 (14.3) 13 (24.1)  
 Asystol 28 (31.5) 4 (10.0) 24 (49.0)   3 (8.6) 25 (46.3)  
 Unknown 3 (3.4) 1 (2.5) 2 (4.1)   1 (2.9) 2 (3.7)  
Witness cardiac arrest 66 (74.2) 37 (92.5) 29 (59.2) < 0.001 32 (91.4) 34 (63.0) 0.003
Bystander CPR 49 (55.1) 25 (62.5) 24 (49.0) 0.202 20 (57.1) 29 (53.7) 0.750
EMS activation to EMS arrival (min) 7.0 (5.6–10.0) 7.0 (6.0–9.0) 7.0 (5.0–10.0) 0.922 6.0 (5.0–10.0) 8.0 (6.0–10.0) 0.305
EMS activation to first defibrillation (min) 7.5 (6.0–12.0) 7.5 (6.0–10.0) 7.5 (5.6–12.3) 1.000 7.0 (6.0–10.0) 9.0 (6.0–12.0) 0.389
Time to ROSC (min) 25.0 (13.8–35.0) 19.0 (11.5–33.5) 27.0 (14.0–36.5) 0.410 16.5 (10.5–29.5) 30.5 (14.8–37.3) 0.007
Epinephrine dose during CPR 1.0 (0.0–3.0) 0.0 (0.0–1.0) 3.0 (1.0–4.0) < 0.001 0.0 (0.0–0.0) 2.5 (1.0–4.0) < 0.001
  1. Quantitative data are expressed as median (interquartile range), categorical data are presented as number of subjects (percentages). Mann-Whitney U test was used for continuous variable analysis, while chi-squared test or Fisher’s exact test were used for categorical variable analysis as appropriate
  2. HTN hypertension, DM diabetes mellitus, HF heart failure, Vf ventricular fibrillation, PEA pulseless electrical activity, CPR cardiopulmonary resuscitation, EMS emergency medical system, ROSC return of spontaneous circulation