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Table 1 Baseline characteristics and dietary intakes of participants according to tertiles of the total protein intake

From: A prospective study on total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to the risk of incident chronic kidney disease

characteristics Tertiles of the total protein  
T1(n = 544) T2(n = 542) T3(n = 544) P for trend
Age (years) 43.3 ± 11.3 42.8 ± 10.9 42.4 ± 11.4 0.868
Male (%) 44.3% 47.2% 57.0% <  0.001
Body mass index (kg/m 2) 27.4 ± 4.5 27.6 ± 4.7 27.8 ± 4.4 0.595
Current smoker (%) 9.6% 11.3% 10.5% 0.620
Low physical activity (%) 68.2% 65.2% 67.1% 0.664
Fasting blood sugar (mg/dl) 91.2 ± 21.1 92.4 ± 22.3 93.5 ± 23.1 0.215
Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 111.7 ± 15.5 112.1 ± 16.7 113.4 ± 16.2 0.379
Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg) 74.0 ± 10.1 74.1 ± 11.2 74.6 ± 10.5 0.352
Triglyceride (mg/dL) 129.0 (91.0–183.7) 127.5 (86.0–184.2) 134.0 (94.0–201.0) 0.361
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m 2) 73.2 ± 8.2 73.9 ± 9.1 73.9 ± 8.5 0.380
Cr (mg/dL) 1.02 ± 0.13 1.02 ± 0.14 1.05 ± 0.14 0.339
Diabetes (%) 8.6% 7.9% 7.9% 0.658
Hypertension (%) 13.2% 11.8% 12.5% 0.714
Daily intakes
 Total energy (Kcal) 1621 ± 364 2224 ± 443 3111 ± 745 <  0.001
 Total protein (%energy) 12.75 ± 2.16 13.68 ± 2.14 14.75 ± 2.50 <  0.001
 Total protein (gr) 50.36 ± 9.83 74.23 ± 6.43 114.44 ± 29.42 <  0.001
 Animal protein (gr/1000 kcal) 16.2 ± 5.9 18.5 ± 6.0 20.9 ± 8.1 <  0.001
 Animal protein (gr) 25.43 ± 8.33 39.43 ± 9.18 63.05 ± 26.65 <  0.001
 Plant protein (gr/1000 kcal) 15.5 ± 3.6 15.8 ± 3.7 16.5 ± 4.9 <  0.001
 Plant protein (gr) 24.92 ± 7.42 34.79 ± 8.99 51.38 ± 21.18 <  0.001
 Total fiber (gr/1000 kcal) 16.1 ± 6.9 17.01 ± 6.7 17.5 ± 6.9 0.224
 Carbohydrate (%energy) 58.1 ± 7.6 57.6 ± 6.8 57.5 ± 7.3 0.048
 Total fat (%energy) 31. ± 7.7 31.4 ± 6.9 30.5 ± 6.5 0.023