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Table 3 Odds ratio (95% confidence intervals) of incident chronic kidney disease according to tertiles of dietary exposures. (Diabetes mellitus and hypertension cases were excluded)

From: A prospective study on total protein, plant protein and animal protein in relation to the risk of incident chronic kidney disease

  Tertiles of dietary intake
T1 T2 T3 P for trend
Total Protein n = 435(CKD = 60) n = 449(CKD = 54) n = 450(CKD = 49)  
 Model 1 1.00 0.83 (0.55–1.26) 0.72 (0.46–1.11) 0.137
 Model 2 1.00 0.79 (0.49–1.28) 0.70 (0.35–1.39) 0.296
 Model 3 1.00 0.79 (0.49–1.27) 0.67 (0.33–1.35) 0.254
Plant Protein n = 446(CKD = 73) n = 451(CKD = 54) n = 437(CKD = 36)  
 Model 1 1.00 0.76 (0.51–1.14) 0.48 (0.30–0.75) 0.002
 Model 2 1.00 0.63 (0.40–0.99) 0.34 (0.18–0.65) 0.001
 Model 3 1.00 0.57 (0.35–0.91) 0.26 (0.12–0.56) 0.001
Animal protein n = 439(CKD = 53) n = 439(CKD = 57) n = 456(CKD = 53)  
 Model 1 1.00 1.00 (0.65–1.52) 0.89 (0.58–1.38) 0.630
 Model 2 1.00 1.02 (0.66–1.59) 1.04 (0.62–1.75) 0.873
 Model 3 1.00 1.01 (0.65–1.58) 0.98 (0.57–1.67) 0.965
  1. P for trend across tertiles calculated with the exposure modelled as a continuous variable
  2. Model 1: crude
  3. Model 2: adjusted for age, sex, smoking, total energy intake, physical activity, BMI
  4. Model 3: additionally adjusted for total fiber intake and energy percent from fat