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Table 1 Overview of geriatric assessment practices, from which participants were recruited, including geriatric testing methods

From: Perspectives and experiences of patients and healthcare professionals with geriatric assessment in chronic kidney disease: a qualitative study

Practices COPE study [15] GOLD study [4]b Routine care pathway, University Medical Centre Groningen
Focus group number 1, 2 3, 4 5, 6
Type of practice Prospective multicentre observational cohort study
4 year follow up
Prospective multicentre observational cohort study
(cross-sectional geriatric assessment)
Routine care practice
Aim of geriatric assessment Examine the severity of cognitive impairment in older patients reaching ESKD before dialysis and the rate of decline after dialysis or CCM initiation Assess the association of geriatric measures between start of dialysis and after 6 months Guide patients to the best treatment choice and to define supplementary care to optimize quality of life and reduction of illness-related symptoms
Population at inclusion ≥65 years, eGFR ≤20 ml/min/1.73m2 ≥65 years, initiating dialysis or conservative kidney management ≥70 years (or younger if indicated), eGFR ≤20 ml/min/1.73m2
Measurements Baseline: at inclusion
Follow-up: yearly (four times), and after six months of start dialysis treatment
Baseline: within 4 weeks of initiating dialysis or 4 weeks after final decision to withhold
Follow-up: after 6 months by phone
Yearly assessment divided over 2 or 3 visits
Conducted by Nurse practitioner or geriatric nurse Research nurse Nurse practitioner
Duration 3 h 60–90 min 2 × 30 min
Location Outpatient clinic Home visit, follow-up by telephone Outpatient clinic
Use of outcomes of assessment For study purposes and discussed in multidisciplinary meeting and with patient, if necessary referred for geriatric consult Collected for study purposes only, at home or in dialysis centre Discussed in multidisciplinary meeting and with patient
Geriatric measures:
 1. Functional status (ADL/ iADL) GARSa
 2. Mobility Gait speeda
Hand grip strengtha
Short Physical Performance batterya
Timed up and go
Four Test Balance Scale
Timed up and goc
 3. Cognition Mini Mental State Examinationa
Clock drawinga
15- WVLTa
Stroop Colour Word Testa
Trail making test (A&B)a
Visual Association Testa
Letter Digit Substitution Testa
Assessment of numeracya
Mini Mental State Examination Clock drawing
Enhanced Cued Recall
Semantic Fluency Test
 4. Mood Geriatric Depression Scalea Geriatric Depression Scale Geriatric Depression Scalea
 5. Nutritional status Subjective Global Assessment or SNAQa Mini-Nutritional Assessment (anamnesis by dietician)a
 6. Comorbidity Charlson Comorbidity Indexa CIRS-G (anamnesis)a
 7. Quality of Lifea RAND-36a EuroQol-5 EuroQol-5Da
Visual Analogue Scalea
 8. Frailty Fried frailty indicatora Groningen Frailty Indexa
Fried Frailty Index (includes 4 m walking test and Handgrip strength)
Rockwood Clinical Frailty score c
 9. Caregiver burden EDIZ-plusa EDIZa ([hetro]anamnesis by social worker) a
 10. Estimation of nephrologist   VAS: overall condition
Surprise question
Surprise question c
 11. Other Cantril’s ladder, Pain score, Anxiety score
Illness perceptions questionnairea
Additional subjective cognition tests (by caregiver):
Neuro-Psychological Inventory a
Outcome Prioritization Tool (treatment goals) a
  1. ADL Activities of daily living; iADL Instrumental activities of daily living; GARS Groningen Activity Restriction Scale; 15-WVLT 15-Word Verbal Learning Test, immediate and delayed; SNAQ Short Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire; CIRS-G Cumulative illness rating scale for geriatrics; EDIZ ‘Ervaren Druk door Informele Zorg’ Self perceived burden from informal care; IDDD Interview of Deterioration in Daily life Dementia; IQCODE Informant Questionnaire on COgnitive DEcline.
  2. aReassessed measures at follow up, b Next to the study measures, two hospitals used additional instruments in routine care practice. St. Antonius hospital: a pre-dialysis decision making trajectory, including a home visit by a social worker and assessment of different domains (Katz, Lawton, MMSE, sometimes depression score (GDS), receiving care and living situation). Maasstad hospital: patients ≥70 years, if considered frail by nephrologist, are seen in a separate appointment with a nurse practitioner and assessed with multiple instruments (including: Katz ADL, Lawton iADL, Mini Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, Charlson Comorbidity Index, Groningen Frailty Indicator, Timed up and go, Hand grip strength, fall risk, caregiver burden, wellbeing measurement) outcomes are discussed in MDTM and with the patient. cMeasures assessed at each visit to the outpatient clinic