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Table 1 Clinical and Laboratory measurements within the ARK study, by country

From: How to estimate glomerular filtration rate in sub-Saharan Africa: design and methods of the African Research into Kidney Diseases (ARK) study

Type of informationEquipmentField proceduresParticipant typeDefinition of variableSite participation
MalawiS. AfricaUganda
DemographicsQuestionnaireFace-to-face interviewallSex, age, education status, marital statusxxx
Chronic disease history and family historyQuestionnaire /medical recordsFace-to-face interviewallHTN, DM, CKD, Stroke, heart diseasexxx
Treatment historyPatient report/recordsFace-to-face interviewallHTN, DM, CKD, Stroke, HIV,TB, Heart disease, Cancer, Backachexxx
Health behavioursPatient reportFace-to-face interviewallTobacco use, alcohol consumption, Physical activity, vegetable, fruits, salt and water intakex x
Traditional medicine useQuestionnaireFace-to-face interviewallUse of herbs and traditional medicinesxxx
Physical examinationOmron®
Flexible tape
SECA© scales
Clinical Examination in the field, machines calibrated weeklyallBP (mmHg), waist and hip circumferences (cms), height (m), weight (Kgs)xxx
ABPMABPM spacelabs®24 h BP, 30 min interval day, 1 h interval nightSample per eGFR quarterBP wake periods and sleep periodsx x
BIABodystat®Tested in the field or clinic with participant, calibration weeklyallFat mass (kg), Lean mass (kg), Dry lean mass(kg), Total body water (L), Impedance at 50 KHZ (Ω)xxx
DXA SCANHologic Discovery A. QDR 4500 SeriesWhole body scan performed in clinical research clinic during iohexol testingallLean Mass (g), Fat mass (g) Fat % and BMI x 
Ultra sound scanLogiq ePerformed at clinicallProbe 4c for kidneys and bladder and probe12L CIMT probe x 
ECG protocol followedallLVH using the Sokolow-Lyon criteriaxxx
CBCBC®Venous blood drawallTotal cell count, HB, MCVx x
24 HR URINECobas Roche®urine using small bucket.Select patients for 24 h proteinuria, salt and feasibility.Volume (mls) Protein (mg)
Creatinine (mmol/L) Na+ mmol/L
Malaria screenMalaria RDT®Done in the communityallMalaria infectionx x
CRPCobas® & BC®Blood drawallCRPx x
Hepatitis BCobas®
ABBOTT (i1000SR)
Blood drawallHepB SAgxxx
Hepatitis CCobas® (Uganda), HCV antibody rapid test (Malawi)Blood drawallHepC Abx x
ASOTCobas® & BC®Blood drawAll> 300  x
HIV screenAlere Dertemine-Stat-pak-Bio line & Abbott DetermineMOH serial testing algorithmallHIV statusxxx
SchistosomiasisMicroscopyExamination of centrifuged urineallSchistosoma hematobiumxxx
MicroalbuminuriaCLINITEK® + analyser & Cobas® & BC®ACRallUrine ACRxxx
Urine analysisClinitek® & UroColorEarly morning urineallProtein, blood, glucose, WBCs,
QuickVue Hcg Urine for pregnancy
Lipid profileCobas® & BC®Blood drawallCholesterol, LDL, HDL, TGsx x
RBSBC®Point of care testing (Uganda $ SA)allDiabetes > 11.1 or on medical treatmentxxx
HBA1CCobas® & BC®Blood drawAll6.5% or on treatmentx x
CreatinineCobas® & BC®Jaffe and IDMSallFor eGFR estimationxxx
Cystatin-CCobas® allFor eGFR estimationxxx
IohexolOmnipaque 300 mg I/ml
Clinic based blood draws at 5, 120, 180 and 240 min after administrationallMeasured GFRxxx
Iohexol, DBSDBS®DBS by finger prick at 120 and 240 min300 selected by eGFRValidation of measured GFR technique  x
Aldosterone/ReninCobas Roche® Selected population x x
  1. All biochemistry was tested using Cobas equipment in Uganda and South Africa and Beckman Coulter equipment in Malawi
  2. Abbreviations: ABPM Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitor, ACR Albumin Creatinine Ratio, ASOT Antistreptococcal antibody titres, BC® Beckman Coulter®, BIA Bioimpedance Analysis, BP Blood Pressure, CBC Cell blood count, CKD Chronic Kidney Disease, CRP C-Reactive protein, CIMT Carotid intima-medial thickness, DBS Dry blood sample, DM Diabetes Mellitus, ECG Electrocardiography, eGFR Estimated glomerular filtration rate, HB Haemoglobin, HTN Hypertension, HPLC High liquid pressure chromatography, IDMS Isotope dilution mass spectrometry, LVH Left ventricular hypertrophy, MCV Mean corpuscular volume, MOH Ministry of Health, RBS Random blood sugar, SA South Africa, TB Tuberculosis