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Table 2 Comparison of clinical characteristics in VA-AKI and non-VA-AKI patients stratified by age groups

From: Vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury in Hong Kong in 2012–2016

 New-borns and infantsChildren 1 to 12 years of ageAdolescents above 12 years of age and adultsElderly patients aged over 60 years
Non-VA-AKIVA-AKIP valueNon-VA-AKIVA-AKIP valueNon-VA-AKIVA-AKIP valueNon-VA-AKIVA-AKIP value
N406 (93.8%)27 (6.2%)123 (83.7%)24 (16.3%)2523 (87.8%)350 (12.2%)8256 (88.7%)1049 (11.3%)
Age0.0 (0.0, 0.1)0.0 (0.0, 0.2)0.0344.5 (2.7, 7.7)4.8 (1.4, 6.3)0.27750.6 (41.1, 56.0)52.2 (43.8, 56.6)0.03779.9 (71.1, 86.4)78.1 (69.0, 84.6)< 0.001
Male59.1%55.6%0.84052.8%70.8%0.12065.0%66.6%0.59063.1%63.4%0.865
Strains of bacteria
 Streptococcus100.594500.2315130.03982140.104
 Enterococcus111 10 101 10620 
 Staphylococcus552 92 15827 1061145 
Route of Administration
 injection98.0%85.2%< 0.00194.3%95.8%0.76382.1%85.7%0.04976.2%78.6%0.279
 parenteral2.0%14.8% 5.7%4.2% 17.6%13.7% 23.5%21.1% 
 oral  0.2%0.3% 0.2%0.2% 
 Eye drop  0.0%0.3% 0.0%0.1% 
 Intraperitoneal  0.1%0.0% 0.0%0.2% 
Chemistry Profile
 Baseline Creatinine (μmol/L)58.2 (41.0, 74.0)44.0 (20.0, 69.0)0.06036.0 (28.4, 46.0)31.5 (23.8, 46.3)0.25666.0 (51.0, 94.0)112.2 (68.0, 269.0)< 0.00179.0 (58.3, 122.0)111.0 (72.7, 196.5)< 0.001
 Tough Vancomycin (mg/L)7.2 (5.0, 10.8)9.7 (5.8, 14.7)0.0755.2 (3.3, 9.2)11.7 (5.7, 19.7)< 0.0017.8 (5.1, 12.5)13.8 (8.6, 20.5)< 0.00111.3 (7.8, 16.2)15.0 (9.9, 21.1)< 0.001
Comorbidities
 Pneumonia7.1%11.1%0.43941.5%25.0%0.17121.6%28.0%0.00938.5%37.9%0.723
 Respiratory failure9.4%11.1%0.73312.2%25.0%0.11520.4%26.6%0.01019.4%24.1%< 0.001
 Essential hypertension0.2%0.0%1.0000.8%0.0%1.00017.1%28.0%< 0.00150.3%53.6%0.048
 Congestive heart failure2.0%0.0%1.0001.6%4.2%0.4177.3%18.0%< 0.00119.3%24.9%< 0.001
 Urinary tract infection4.9%3.7%1.0005.7%8.3%0.64115.4%15.4%1.00038.4%34.5%0.015
 Chronic renal failure0.2%0.0%1.0000.8%8.3%0.0697.3%24.0%< 0.0016.5%16.0%< 0.001
 Fever3.9%7.4%0.31134.1%29.2%0.81425.3%24.9%0.89636.1%34.9%0.429
 Sepsis7.1%3.7%1.00014.6%12.5%1.00013.4%15.4%0.31821.3%21.4%0.938
 Anaemia12.3%11.1%1.00018.7%20.8%0.78121.4%27.7%0.00925.8%29.9%0.004
 Type II DM12.1%18.9%0.00127.0%30.3%0.024
Number of comorbidities
 066.0%55.6%0.37930.1%37.5%0.73229.9%19.4%< 0.00110.2%9.6%0.114
 123.2%37.0% 31.7%20.8% 24.9%18.9% 15.0%12.4% 
 27.9%3.7% 21.1%25.0% 19.3%20.3% 18.2%18.9% 
  > 33.0%3.7% 17.1%16.7% 25.8%41.4% 56.5%59.1% 
Concomitant drugs
 Inotropic agents2.5%0.0%1.0004.1%4.2%1.0004.5%8.8%0.00211.4%12.8%0.184
 Diuretics71.2%74.1%0.82948.0%62.5%0.26554.2%72.7%< 0.00164.2%73.5%< 0.001
 ACEI2.7%7.4%0.1916.5%33.3%0.00119.4%30.6%< 0.00132.5%34.2%0.285
 ARB0.8%0.0%1.0005.2%11.5%< 0.0017.5%9.0%0.079
 PTZ12.3%7.4%0.75826.8%29.2%0.80662.0%73.3%< 0.00162.0%67.9%< 0.001
 Meropenem53.0%44.4%0.43041.5%66.7%0.02751.2%59.4%0.00642.5%47.6%0.002
 Aminoglycoside54.4%33.3%0.04559.3%45.8%0.26252.7%50.9%0.55745.6%49.4%0.024
 Cefepime89.4%100.0%0.09484.6%70.8%0.14169.3%72.7%0.22564.6%66.2%0.317
 Amphotericin B6.9%11.1%0.4298.1%20.8%0.0728.6%8.5%1.0002.1%3.2%0.019
 NSAIDs1.2%0.0%1.00031.7%29.2%1.00030.1%21.8%0.00215.7%14.7%0.367
Number of concomitant drugs
 02.0%0.0%0.6850.8%0.0%0.7382.7%1.8%< 0.0012.9%2.0%< 0.001
 110.1%7.4% 15.4%12.5% 8.0%3.0% 8.2%4.9% 
 224.9%33.3% 24.4%16.7% 16.9%7.6% 16.4%13.1% 
  > 363.1%59.3% 59.3%70.8% 72.4%87.6% 72.5%80.0% 
Length of Stay85.0 (47.8, 122.0)107.0 (31.0, 155.0)0.60836.5 (21.0, 61.0)39.5 (12.3, 87.5)0.77850.0 (27.0, 87.0)44.0 (25.0, 85.0)0.24940.0 (23.0, 67.0)33.0 (20.0, 58.0)< 0.001
Death in hospital8.4%18.5%0.0759.8%25.0%0.03716.8%31.4%< 0.00128.4%51.5%< 0.001
  1. Abbreviations: Type II DM Type II diabetes metillus, ACEI angiotension converting enzyme inhibitors, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, PTZ piperacillin-tazobactam, NSAIDs non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs