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Table 3 Predicators for VA-AKI in Hong Kong

From: Vancomycin-associated acute kidney injury in Hong Kong in 2012–2016

 ORModel 1Model 2Model 3Model 4
Male0.96 (0.86, 1.08)
Age
 Newborn and infantsReference
 Children 1 to 12 years of age2.93 (1.63, 5.27)*
 Adults and adolescents above 12 years of age2.09 (1.39, 3.13)*
 Elderly patients1.91 (1.29, 2.84)
Chemistry profile
 Baseline creatinine1.00 (1.00, 1.00)*1.00 (1.00, 1.00)*1.00 (1.00, 1.00)*1.00 (1.00, 1.00)*
 Trough vancomycin level1.04 (1.04, 1.05)*1.05 (1.04, 1.05)*1.04(1.04, 1.05)*1.04 (1.04,1.05)*1.04 (1.04,1.05)*
Classification of vancomycin level (mg/L)
  < 10.0ReferenceReferenceReferenceReferenceReference
 10.0~15.01.55 (1.34, 1.81)*1.68 (1.44, 1.96)*1.63 (1.39, 1.92)*1.62 (1.38,1.89)*1.64 (1.40,1.93)*
 15.1~20.02.50 (2.13, 2.93)*2.75 (2.33, 3.24)*2.62 (2.21, 3.11)*2.61 (2.20,3.08)*2.62 (2.21,3.11)*
  > 20.03.89 (3.34, 4.53)*4.29 (3.67, 5.02)*3.93 (3.34, 4.63)*4.05 (3.45,4.77)*4.07 (3.46,4.79)*
Comorbidities
 Pneumonia1.06 (0.94, 1.19)1.07 (0.96, 1.21)
 Essential hypertension1.23 (1.10, 1.38)*1.33 (1.18, 1.50)* 
 Urinary tract infection0.87 (0.77, 0.98)#0.88 (0.77, 1.00)
 Fever0.97 (0.86, 1.09)0.98 (0.87, 1.11)
 Anemia1.29 (1.14, 1.45)*1.30 (1.15, 1.48)*
 Respiratory failure1.39 (1.22, 1.58)*1.39 (1.22, 1.58)*
 Type II DM1.25 (1.10, 1.41)*1.28 (1.13, 1.46)*
 Sepsis1.03 (0.90, 1.19)1.05 (0.91, 1.20) 
 Chronic renal failure3.17 (2.72, 3.70)*3.18 (2.72, 3.71)*
 Congestive heart failure1.56 (1.37, 1.79)*1.63 (1.42, 1.87)*
Concomitant drugs
 Inotropic agents1.26 (1.05, 1.50)#1.28 (1.07, 1.53)#1.19 (0.99,1.43)
 Diuretics1.71 (1.51, 1.94)*1.72 (1.51, 1.95)*1.49 (1.31,1.70)* 
 ACEI1.25 (1.11, 1.41)*1.27 (1.12, 1.43)*1.11 (0.98,1.27)
 ARB1.46 (1.20, 1.77)*1.47 (1.21, 1.79)*1.15 (0.94,1.42)
 PTZ1.39 (1.24, 1.57)*1.41 (1.25, 1.59)*1.39 (1.23,1.57)*
 Meropenem1.29 (1.16, 1.45)*1.29 (1.15, 1.44)*1.23 (1.10,1.39)*
 Aminoglycoside1.71 (0.96, 1.22)1.07 (0.95, 1.21)#1.05 (0.94,1.18)
 Cefepime1.31 (1.01, 1.71)1.29 (0.99, 1.69)1.04 (0.92,1.18) 
 Amphotericin B0.84 (0.73, 0.98)#0.84 (0.72, 0.97)1.24 (0.95,1.63)
 NSAIDs1.00 (1.00, 1.00)#1.00 (1.00, 1.00)0.93 (0.80,1.09)
Length of Stay0.97 (0.86, 1.09)0.98 (0.87, 1.11)1.00 (1.00,1.00)1.00 (1.00,1.00)#
  1. Data is expressed as odds ratio (95% confidence interval)
  2. -Not available or not in the equation
  3. Model 1: adjusted for age and gender
  4. Model 2: additionally, adjusted for comorbidities;
  5. Model 3: additionally, adjusted for medications;
  6. Model 4: additionally, adjusted for baseline creatinine and length of stay
  7. *p < 0.001 #p < 0.05