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Table 4 Cox Proportional Hazard Model for Relationship of Individual Social Determinant of Health Measures on Mortality

From: The cumulative impact of social determinants of health factors on mortality in adults with diabetes and chronic kidney disease

  Unadjusted Adjusted for Demographics Adjusted for Demographics and Lifestyle Adjusted for Demographics, Lifestyle, Glycemic Control and Comorbidities
Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P- Value Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P- Value Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P- Value Hazard Ratio (95% CI) P- Value
Ratio of family income to poverty group   0.09   0.03   0.08   0.05
≤130% of poverty level (ref > 130% of poverty level) 1.29 (0.96–1.74)   a1.46 (1.04–2.05)   1.31 (0.97–1.79)   1.40 (1.00–1.97)  
Household food security group   0.05   0.17   0.06   0.09
Food insecure (ref Food secure) 0.70 (0.49–1.00)   1.27 (0.90–1.80)   1.42 (0.99–2.04)   1.41 (0.95–2.07)  
Depression group   0.02   < 0.01   < 0.01   < 0.01
Mild to Severe depression (ref No depression 0–4) a1.33 (1.04–1.71)   a1.44 (1.12–1.86)   a1.45 (1.12–1.86)   a1.41 (1.10–1.82)  
Gender Female (ref Male)    a0.69 (0.51–0.93) 0.02 a0.61 (0.45–0.84) < 0.01 a0.65 (0.46–0.91) 0.01
Age at Screening (Increase 1 year)    a1.06 (1.05–1.07) < 0.01 a1.06 (1.04–1.07) < 0.01 a1.05 (1.04–1.06) < 0.01
Race (ref non-Hispanic White)     0.04   0.03   0.04
non-Hispanic Black    0.84 (0.62–1.15)   0.83 (0.61–1.13)   0.82 (0.60–1.12)  
Other    a0.66 (0.48–0.90)   a0.65 (0.47–0.89)   a0.66 (0.47–0.91)  
Education level (Increase 1 level)    0.93 (0.84–1.03) 0.15 0.97 (0.88–1.08) 0.58 1.00 (0.90–1.10) 0.93
Insurance coverage No (ref Yes)    0.67 (0.32–1.43) 0.30 0.74 (0.35–1.57) 0.43 0.69 (0.31–1.52) 0.36
Lifestyle Factors
Physical activity Moderate to Vigorous (ref none)      a0.51 (0.38–0.69) < 0.01 a0.52 (0.37–0.74) < 0.01
Smoking status Former or Current Smoker (ref none)      a1.38 (1.09–1.76) < 0.01 a1.35 (1.05–1.74) 0.02
Drinking status Moderate or above Drinker (ref none)      a0.61 (0.45–0.81) < 0.01 a0.59 (0.43–0.82) < 0.01
Glycemic Control
Hemoglobin A1c (%) (Increase 1%)        a1.09 (1.01–1.18) 0.03
Comorbidity
Hypertension (Ref No Hypertension)        2.00 (0.71–1.42) 0.99
Heart disease (Ref No Heart Disease)        a1.76 (1.33–2.34) < 0.01
Stroke (Ref no Stroke)        0.99 (0.64–1.53) 0.96
Cancer (Ref No Cancer)        a1.44 (1.04–2.02) 0.03
  1. aIndicates significant hazard ratio